Author: Bogdan Góralski
Fluctuations of the Earth’s dynamic oblateness J2 are a measure of Earth’s coating movement – the movements of the equatorial bulge and flattening of Earth on the poles. It is measured in SLR – geodetic satellite laser research. J2 is directly related to the degree-2 zonal (C20) coefficient of the gravity field (J2=−√5C20). Explanation what is this the J2 coefficient is in Reference Earth Model -WGS84(Copyright 2002, David T. Sandwell). According to D. T. Sandwell, J2 coefficient depends from polar radius c, flattening f = (a -c)/a, equatorial radius a, rotation rate of Earth’s -omega, gravitational constant G, mass of earth Me.
Fluctuations in the degree-2 zonal spherical harmonic coefficient of the Earth’s gravity potential C20 is shoved in the graph below. This coefficient is related to the Earth’s oblateness and studying its temporal variations,ΔC20, can be used to monitor large-scale mass movements between high and low latitude regions. ΔC20 has been examining (2003-2019) inferred from six different sources, including satellite laser ranging (SLR), GRACE and global geophysical fluids models. We further include estimates that we derive from measured variations in the length-of-day (LOD), from the inversion of global crustal displacements as measured by GPS, as well as from the combination of GRACE and the output of an ocean model.
Ocean emission of carbon dioxide depends (in my opinion) from rate of photosynthesis in surface layer of ocean which is feed by rising from the bottom fertile and dense waters of ocean – by the oceanic upwelling .
Changes in Earth’s shape ie. flattening, equatorial radius changed by movement of earth’s coating (with equatorial bulge and flattening on the poles) relative to ecliptic plane cause changes of earth’s rotation rate and upwelling changes (mass movement of oceanic water due to changes in centrifugal force) in oceans ie. increasing or decreasing of photosynthesis resulting in carbon dioxide emission changes from oceans (see for explanation to the next chapter). That is why we see almost strict correlation of carbon dioxide emission with Earth’s shape changes mirrored by delta C 20 coefficient on the graph below. In my opinion when carbon dioxide emission increases then increases flattening of earth (due to Earth’s coating movement) and C20 increases accordingly because of bigger earth’s rotation rate, and vice versa. Carbon dioxide emission from ocean decreases when earth’s flattening decreases and rotation rate decreases because of changes moment of Earth’s inertia due to earths coating movement.
Sources of data:
Delta C20 relative to a mean value of -4.841694723127E-4 (1E-10)
Data downloaded 2019.02.09 https://grace.jpl.nasa.gov/data/get-data/oblateness/
Recent Monthly Average Mauna Loa CO2
Data downloaded 2019.02.09 https://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/ccgg/trends/
Ocean Physic-chemistry and carbon dioxide emissions versus Earth’s oblateness changes
Ocean acidification leading to lowering pH of surface ocean water remains an unsolved problem of science. My article will mark an attempt at proving that this is a regular phenomenon in the ocean history linked to changes in the Earth’s shape and climate.
Ocean acidification is the ongoing increase in the concentration of hydrogen ions in seawater, which are formed from dissociated carbonic acid. It has been confirmed that a decline in the pH level is teamed up with a drop in the biological productivity in the oceans, a rise in ocean temperature and a growth in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and in the ocean. The above facts have enabled me to formulate a theory which explains these phenomena. My theory is based on scientifically proven facts from numerous disciplines of science, what explains why researchers narrowly specialising in selected areas have not managed to-date to crunch the secrets of the ocean that call for adoption of a multilateral approach to our Planet as a part of the Universe which surrounds it.
At the beginning, I would like to present the course of the carbon cycle in the natural environment, which highlights the vital role played in this respect by the ocean containing 98% of the Earth’s carbon dioxide. Surface ocean water carries more carbon in compounds than the atmosphere. Hiding the key to the mystery of ocean acidification, ocean’s interiors are the principal carbon reservoir.
Contemporary models shedding the light at the secret of seawater acidification assume that the ocean waters capture carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Later, its reactions spur the acid reaction of the ocean. My reasoning has led me to a different conclusion. It is the dwindling ocean productivity which leaves dissolved carbon dioxide in the seawater. Its solubility is diminished by the rise in ocean water temperature (by one degree Celsius since 1910, according to IPCC). Excess carbon dioxide is emitted into the atmosphere, while its growing concentration in seawater leads to ocean acidification.
Declining ocean productivity is triggered by a slump in its nutrient uptake, i.e. shrinking supplies to ocean surface waters of silicates, phosphates, carbonates, iron, etc. elements driving the ongoing photosynthesis process binding carbon dioxide from seawater, carried from the ocean’s interior. A decline in ocean productivity is an after-effect of low nutrient supply. Conversely, surface seawater is poor in life-giving elements as a result of cosmic processes, but let us discuss first things first.
The ocean is a biological machine, and its life depends on the mixing of waters in its deep ocean layers. Much remains to be learnt about this process and currently we have no knowledge of ocean water exchange processes. As life in the ocean thrives continuously, it is clear that water circulation covers the entire volume of the ocean. Circulation is triggered by ongoing and variable impact of the gravitational interaction of the Moon and the Sun (and planets) on ocean waters demonstrating diversified density. Circulation is also triggered by mixing of ocean waters (in my opinion) because of movement of Earth’s surface layer ie. movement Earths coating (consisting with crust and upper mantle) relative to ecliptic plane. Oceanic tides are generated in the surface and deep waters. The cold and dense deep water masses carrying particles of bottom sediments (including life-giving elements and dissolved minerals) move upwards to cool down and supply nutrients to surface seawater, while surface waters descend into the ocean’s interior to fuel biological processes with oxygen. Moreover, the impact of deep waters (rich in silicates, phosphates, carbonates) on the surface layers possibly alters their acidity by neutralising it. Ocean water exchange between surface waters and the deepest layers is augmented by continuous shifts in the location of Earth’s coating – changes in the angle of the Earth’s spin, what alters the centrifugal force impacting inert masses of water as well as its vertical and horizontal motions across the ocean. The shift in the location of Earth’s coating is caused by changes in the location of objects in the Solar System, by the variable gravitational field. When the heavy metallic core is shifting within the liquid outer core, the location of the centre of Earth’s gravity is changed just like its spin axis. This process leads to a change in the location of geographical poles, and consequently, the variable centrifugal force spurs movement of inert ocean waters and their mixing within the volume of the world ocean.
Shifts in the location of poles have probably been minor since the 17th century (LOD – length of day has stabilised according to EIRS). This is testified by migration of the North Magnetic Pole which is drifting in the 20th century towards the north geographical pole (within its close distance). In the 20th century, the Earth’s coating and inner core was shifting towards a location assuring its equilibration with the current location of Earth’s spin axis.
Therefore, the impact of the location of poles on the mixing of deep ocean water has been reduced. This phenomenon is tantamount to reduced upwelling – motion of cooler and nutrient-rich deep water towards ocean surface, lowered supply of nutrients to surface layers of the ocean, limited ocean photosynthesis and a rise in surface water temperature, what has led to decline in the biological productivity of the ocean and impaired carbon dioxide binding in seawater. At the same time, this phenomenon was teamed up with a rise in acidification of ocean surface water related to a decrease in carbon dioxide solubility in ocean surface layers. The concentration of liquid carbon dioxide in seawater was increased as a result of a surge in its acidity and diffusion of excess carbon dioxide into the atmosphere where its level reached above 410 ppmv.
Witnessed since 1910 according to IPCC, ocean water warming has led to a shift in location of low- and high-pressure areas in the troposphere, what results in changes in the Earth’s climate known as “global warming”. More important to global warming is shift of Earth’s coating as is described in my paper (Góralski B. 2019)
According to IPCC (The IPCC Scientific Assessment 1990 : 11, Figure 1.6)
, the same mechanism involving a rise in the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to more than 300 ppmv and the warming of the Earth’s climate by 12 degrees Celsius took place approx. 120,000-140,000 years ago, what means that it was not caused by anthropogenic factors. Therefore, reasons behind the seasonal surge in the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide should be sought elsewhere, perhaps in processes described above and below. Climate changes, shifts in carbon emissions from the ocean are therefore a side effect of changes in physicochemical processes in the ocean which are controlled by cosmic process described by scores of researchers, including Milutin Milanković. Obliquity changes, a shift in the spin axis and location of Earth’s poles are driven by changes in the distribution of masses within the Solar System. Internal mass distribution within the Solar System is sensitive to the gravitational interactions of the Milky Way – our galaxy. Subsequent transitions across its spiral arms are marked by consecutive orogenic eras and related climatic periods – alternatingly cold or warm, as described by Klaus Pfeilsticker of Heidelberg University.
Diagram of cyclic changes in Earth’s climate processes:
1. A period of fast and significant changes in the magnetic field of the Sun as a result of internal mass distribution within the Solar System.
2. A period of swift shifts in the location of Earth’s poles and Earth’s coating.
3. A surge in ocean upwelling leading to intensified photosynthesis and a slump in seawater temperatures.
4. Increased carbon solubility in seawater resulting from a drop in its temperature, capturing more CO2 during photosynthesis, a decline in concentration of liquid CO2 in surface waters as a result of their lower acidity, increased absorption of CO2 from atmosphere and a gradual decline in CO2 atmospheric concentration to 180 ppmv during intensive shifts of Earth’s poles and coating lasting 100,000 years and related cooling of ocean water by approx. 12 ° C and cooling of Earth’s climate by 12 ° C.
5. A period of stabilisation of the Sun’s magnetic field as a result of internal mass distribution within the Solar System.
6. A period witnessing stable location of Earth’s poles and earth’s coating.
7. A decline in ocean upwelling leading to a drop in photosynthesis and warming of seawater.
8. 4. Lowered carbon solubility in seawater as a result of higher temperature of ocean surface waters, capturing less CO2 during photosynthesis, a surge in concentration of liquid CO2 in surface waters as a result of their higher acidity, lower absorption of CO2 from atmosphere and a gradual boost in CO2 atmospheric concentration by diffusion of excess CO2 from seawater into the atmosphere to over 300 ppmv during non-existent shifts of Earth’s poles and coating lasting approx. 20,000 years and related warming of ocean water by approx. 12 ° C and warming of Earth’s climate by 12 ° C.
9. The current rise in atmospheric concentration of CO2 to above 400 ppmv is triggered by both natural ocean processes and the combined impact of anthropogenic factors and natural CO2 emissions. The effect is augmented by volcanic carbon and methane emissions from the mantle containing approx. 500 million of carbon gigatons from various compounds.
We should follow up on efforts aimed at ultimate identification of Earth’s climate mechanisms. My contribution to this research is the Polish book entitled “Historia naturalna i zmiany klimatu” published in the Internet.
Warsaw, 2014-2019.02.10, time 20:00 Bogdan Góralski
1.Góralski B. (2019) The new climatic theory-Climatic effects of Earth’s coating movement,
2. Thierry Meyrath, Paul Rebischung, Tonie Van Dam (2017), GRACE era variability in the Earth’s oblateness: A comparison of estimates from six different sources, Geophysical Journal International 208(2):1126-1138, DOI: 10.1093/gji/ggw441, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/316941829_GRACE_era_variability_in_the_Earth%27s_oblateness_A_comparison_of_estimates_from_six_different_sources
3. Yu Sun, Riccardo Riva, Pavel Ditmar, Roelof Rietbroek, Using GRACE to explain variations in the Earth’soblateness, Paper downloaded 2019.02.10, 8:00 https://wobbly.earth/data/Paper_J2_for_Roelof.pdf
4. Xinggang Zhang, Shuanggen Jin , and Xiaochun Lu,Global Surface Mass Variations from Continuous GPS Observations and Satellite Altimetry Data
Paper downloaded 2019.02.10; 8:30 https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=12&ved=2ahUKEwiPs_6z0rDgAhWiwAIHHY6pCOE4ChAWMAF6BAgIEAI&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.mdpi.com%2F2072-4292%2F9%2F10%2F1000%2Fpdf&usg=AOvVaw0Cc2xWKet81l72omAGuHlR
5. Reference Earth Model -WGS84 (Copyright 2002, David T. Sandwell)
Paper downloaded 2019.02.10:18:00 from site: https://topex.ucsd.edu/geodynamics/14gravity1_2.pdf
Warsaw, 9 February 2019, 22:40 Bogdan Góralski