False foundations of Marxist ideology

The Marxist ideology based on false foundations was the cause II World War and the suffering of the peoples of Europe and the ideological offensive carried out by Soviet Russia around the world. I expose the falsehood of Karl Marx’s ideology and the ideology of his followers in the following work. William Stanley Jevons (1835-1882) shortly before his death formulated theory on the connection between commercial crises and sunspots. He was right what we know now in the XXI century but Karl Marx’s theory about permanent crises of capitalism was widely advertised in the XIX century by scientific circles. Karl Marx was wrong also about the struggle of classes as a  driving force of history because the climate changes are undoubtedly driving force of history (what I shoved in my research). The only excuse of Marx’s theory of the need for revolution is poor knowledge in the XIX century about cosmic reasons earthly historical and economical processes and cruelty of feudal elites in Europe.

I expose the falsehood of Karl Marx’s ideology and the ideology of his followers in the following work.

What did Karl Marx not know?

What to do to ensure the abundance of food for the human population?

Bogdan Góralski bogdangoralski@wp.pl

Library of the Historical Institute of the University of Warsaw

Introduction

• It is certain that the change in global climate conditions awaiting us in the future and related to the displacement of the Earth’s coating can cause a decrease in cereal yields by at least 50%, which would have unpredictable effects in the form of global famine. As my research indicates, this would lead to a  world war that would probably destroy the culture of human civilization. In this context, priority should be given to measures to increase farm productivity. Such an increase can only take place by deconcentrating agricultural ownership in Western agriculture – dividing large farms into smaller leased and indivisible farms as soon as possible. The organization of African agriculture should also be improved by promoting the agricultural structure of farms in the area of one acre and by improving the supply of agricultural produce. Africa could be turned into a global granary provided that airships and drones are used in African and European-Asian agriculture.

Why deconcentrating of huge farms is needed?

• As research in agricultural economics shows, small farms have greater pure technical efficiency and make better use of capital (Sulewski 2008). Other surveys (Polish Statistical Yearbook 1967: 256 Table 56) show that small farms with an area below 3 ha have global production per hectare by 81% higher than farms with an area over 15 ha. This is confirmed by the pre-war Swiss profitability research discussed in the book “Chłopi under Bolshevik rule” (Przybyłowski 2001: 29).

A modern feudal farming system is needed

• What I wrote above indicates the need, wherever possible, to support small family farms and create to them (by organizing the sale of agricultural products and supplying cheap means of production) conditions for intensive agricultural production. Such conditions for peasant farming in Poland will exist in the feudal agricultural production system. You should, appropriately modifying it, return to feudal farming.

  • Take the cost of fertilizer, for instance. Farmers in America pay a price on delivery of $226 per tonne. But in Zambia, the price is $414. Shipping costs explain only a small part of the difference. The rest is accounted for by port duties, bribes, storage fees, fuel costs, the importer’s mark-up, and the credit charges racked up as the fertilizer makes its tortuous journey from port to farm (Economist).

Need Agricultural Advisors?

  • Some bottlenecks (wąskie gardła) are not easy to clear. To build a network of rural roads is hard. But small investments can make the whole difference. There are cases where a starving part of a country is cut off from another part with plenty of food for want of a bridge, says David Ameyaw, a Ghana-born American who edited the AGRA report. Money spent on research can also have a big pay-off as it helps governments to gauge which policies work best. Africa has just 70 agricultural researchers for every million people, says AGRA. The comparable figure for Latin America is 550; for North America it is 2,640 (Economist, Farming in Africa. Cold comfort farms).

Europe and North America have the most of arable land in relation to the population. At the beginning of the 20th century, more than 30% of the population have been found employment and agriculture in the US and Europe, and today it is 2% of the population. Agricultural structural changes after the French Revolution and global warming reducing food prices and technological progress caused the disappearance of the farmers’ layer in western agriculture and the creation of large-scale mechanized farms. The concentration of agricultural ownership has resulted in concentration in industry and the disappearance of medium and small dynamic economic entities. The concentration of the economy reduces its efficiency and dynamics as well as competitiveness as the efficiency decreases in the use of financing which is characteristic of small business entities that are easier to manage effectively.

Shifting (along with the Earth’s coating) of the area of ​​Russia, north Asia to the North will drastically reduce the agricultural production of these areas. Societies in these areas will not be able to feed themselves or buy food on the global market due to the dramatic increase in global food prices and the lack of means of transport for its transportation. The food shortage causes the danger of a global war.

When food prices rise, the poor cannot afford to buy it. As can be seen in the figure below, in Russia and China, the human population is sensitive to increases in food prices due to low incomes and a small area of ​​arable land, as well as the threat of climate deterioration.

The technology of surviving the climate crisis is needed

• Technology is a way of achieving an assumed goal conditioned by the state of knowledge and social fitness (Lem 1974: 32-33).

What is survival technology?

• Our goal is to survive the impending climate crisis, which is the most important inevitable threat to us, which is why we need to acquire knowledge and social fitness. What does it mean to acquire knowledge – we understand, but what does it mean to be socially fit?

• A socially efficient society must work together in order not to waste its strength (energy) and successfully achieve the goal of survival. It is a society with a high ability to cooperate, an ethical society. So social fitness is about social bonds. It is about ethics, which saves social energy in achieving the goal of survival.

Modern Survival Technology will determine the use of the entire heritage of our civilization and it will look like this:

• 1. mechanisms providing everyone with the opportunity to acquire knowledge and wealth,

• 2. organizing peaceful migration of nations from overpopulated crisis-threatened lands,

• 3. developing a uniform ethical system.

The crisis means a revolution and revolution is a threat to the lives of the elite

• It is the current elite that should implement modern survival technology to avoid endangering their lives.

The only economic system that can absorb migrating human masses is the modern feudal system

He will grant settlers arable land,

  help them develop the land,

  help them in needs,

  double the agricultural production per hectare of arable land

Why the modern feudal system?

  • Soviet Russia had the problem of too large a peasant population – 120 million peasants to 30 million of the remaining population. It was solved by destroying the peasant layer, creating large farms forcibly and developing the industry with its own capital. This resulted in the disappearance of the most prolific peasant layer and the modern depopulation of Russia. Otherwise, the peasant problem was solved by China.
  • Communist China had problems with feeding China, which was why the inefficient agricultural communes were given up by distributing small plots of land to 800 million peasants. The peasant family is now responsible for food production. Thanks to this, China is self-sufficient food and even exports food. State-owned purchase of food was organized, and the prices of agricultural produce were shaped by the free market of surpluses produced by Chinese farmers. Chinese farmers are assigned legally to the land, farming on small plots of land (often 1 hectare per family) is very poor, and their youth is forced to a controlled migration to the cities where the industry giving its employment is created. There is now a trend among Chinese peasants to create voluntary agricultural cooperatives, which is not supported by the authorities.
  • Russian agriculture is dominated by large-scale specialized mechanized farms, which causes depopulation among the rural areas. Agricultural production cannot be increased in the existing system due to the low production efficiency of large farms. Only the deconcentrating of Russian agriculture can double agricultural production, but the problem is the lack of farmers who need to settle on small farms. Excess farmers occur in neighboring China, and existing examples testify to the good assimilation of Chinese farmers in Russian society. Organizing the migration of Chinese farmers to the west the European continent can help depopulate the Chinese countryside and increase the area of ​​Chinese farms, which would reduce poverty in the Chinese countryside. How to start this process of migration of Asian farmers to the land owned by Western great possessors of the agricultural land- the latifundium?
  • The impulse may come out of Poland in which the farmers’ population is dying out and rapidly needs an injection of fresh blood. Poland has almost deserted, depopulated so-called Western lands taken away from Germany after World War II. The Western lands of Poland can take whole well-organized villages of Asian farmers and increase food production for its sale in the east of the continent. The problem arises of organizing the life of western Polish agricultural provinces. This task can be entrusted to the descendants of the Polish nobility and landowners (who first need to be rehabilitated in front of the society) and give them back property plundered by the Tsar and Bolsheviks, e.g. in the form of Polish state treasury bonds. The enfranchisement of Polish peasants with the tsarist law 1864  year was carried out without compensation for the noble landowners and was a huge mistake because it resulted in the subsequent concentration of agricultural property in Poland. The agricultural reform carried out by Polish communists, which took over the land used for centuries by Polish nobility and landowners, caused the contemporary decline of Polish agriculture because it was carried out against the economic mechanisms shaping the agricultural structure and caused even greater concentration and inefficiency of farming on agricultural property in Poland. Only rehabilitation and rebuilding the tradition of Polish nobility and landowners can help rebuild Polish agriculture. This requires awareness of the necessity of such a process in the Russian political elite, which would have to carry out a critical analysis of the ideological foundations of the current Russian state. Similar critical analysis and rehabilitation of the feudal system in China must be carried out by Chinese communists.
  • The Chinese revolution that has been going on since the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1850 was caused by the huge rise in rice prices, which resulted from the worsening climate in China since 1850. The deterioration of the climate resulted from natural processes initiated northward shifting of the Earth’s shell along with the area of ​​China and changes in the range of the East Asian monsoon, which resulted in a decrease in the amount of precipitation in Southeast Asia. Chinese landowners were not responsible for the deterioration of the fate of the Chinese people as a result of the huge increase in food prices. Such an increase resulted from the laws of the natural process and the economics of agriculture, which laws as I see still unknown. However, Chinese feudal lords and feudal lords of other nations used economic power to exalt themselves over the poor, and this was reprehensible in every ancient ethical tradition. This exaltation of the rich over the poor cannot be allowed to repeat itself in the future. The revolutions were a protest against the stupidity of the political elite, its cruelty and exploitation, and social injustice, as well as against state organisms degenerated by the concentration of property in the hands of a narrow group of rich people. Karol Marx did not know about reasons shaping the historical process. It can explain the call of Karol Marx for a communist revolution carried out by fanatical communist leaders, namely Vladimir Lenin, Joseph Stalin, Mao Zedong, and others. These revolutions have changed nothing and there is still a huge social stratification in Russia and China. We need to learn from these bloody and full of suffering revolutions and learn modern knowledge about the causes of revolutionary protests. The cause of the revolution is not the struggle of social classes, but changes in the forces of gravity in the space that surrounds us, which cause the movements of the earth’s coating and regional climate changes on Earth. Climate change is reducing agricultural production and increasing food prices, which means that people prefer to fight the rich rather than starve to death.
  • This paper removes ignorance about the reasons for rising food prices and the reasons for the alternating concentration and deconcentrating of agricultural property, which depend on space processes in the solar system and beyond. Knowledge of these processes must influence the rationalization of the political decisions of today’s authorities if they want to remain in power during the oncoming global rise in food prices. A global increase in food prices could lead to the physical elimination of the current elite if they do not take appropriate steps to alleviate the impending food crisis, which will trigger the wild aggression of the affected societies. One should quickly return to the feudal system modernized by modern ethics in agriculture and eliminate the inheritance of private property.
  • Warsaw, 5 January 2020, Bogdan Góralski

Chinese revolutions and rice prices change

Chinese revolutions and rice prices change

Bogdan Góralski

Library of the Historical Institute of University of Warsaw

Chinese history is written by changes in the price of rice – the basic Chinese cereal. Each major increase in rice prices was preceded by a period of low prices in which agricultural property was concentrated in the hands of huge landowners. Then always followed a price increase causing social discontent and the outbreak of popular uprisings that changing the Chinese authorities. Then happen deconcentrating of land ownership by dividing landowners’ agricultural assets between starving crowds of people and the rule of the new dynasty. And so the elites ruling China change from the rise in rice prices to the next rise. As a result of the recent People’s Revolution in China in the early 1980s, there was another deconcentrating in agricultural ownership due to the global rise in food prices. The land possessed for many years by rural communist communes was transferred to Chinese peasants, and so far there is no shortage of food in China because 800 million producers produce it very effectively. Unfortunately, another global climate change is coming, which will increase global food prices. I am writing below about the causes of this future climate and food disaster.

Fig 1  Rice Prices in the Yangzi Delta, 1638–1935 (taels of silver per shi)

Source of the graph: Chinese History in Economic Perspective, Edited By
Thomas G. Rawski and Lillian M. Li,  UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA PRESS

Berkeley · Los Angeles · Oxford © 1992 The Regents of the University of California

https://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft6489p0n6;brand=ucpress

Chapter One
Secular Trends of Rice Prices in the Yangzi Delta, 1638–1935, by Yeh-chien Wang

An excerpt from above book:

“In Table 1.1, I have compiled an annual price series for the delta from 1638 through 1935 by combining four shorter series as follows: a Shanghai series for 1638–95, a series for Suzhou City (the capital city of Suzhou Prefecture) covering 1696–1740, a Suzhou Prefecture series for 1741–1910, and a Shanghai series for 1911–35. There are, however, a number of years for which price data are missing. In such cases, I have filled out the missing data by extrapolation (marked with an asterisk in the third column); for the years 1862–64, when Suzhou was occupied by the Taiping rebels, I have used Shanghai prices.

https://publishing.cdlib.org/ucpressebooks/view?docId=ft6489p0n6&chunk.id=d0e2119&toc.depth=1&brand=ucpress

Chapter Six
Land Concentration and Income Distribution in Republican China, by Loren Brandt and Barbara Sands

An excerpt from above six chapter ,page 179:

“These remarks by the British historian Richard Tawney typify much of the thinking both in China and in the West about the growing concentration of landholdings in late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century rural China”.

This excerpt from the above-cited book confirms the concentration of agricultural ownership in China in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries caused by a reduction in rice prices in the period 1860-1885 caused by a favorable climate. Then followed a climate deterioration and a sharp rise in rice prices (Fig. 1) (and all food?), Which triggered the Chinese Revolution.

Fig. 2 Comparison of rice prices in China and wheat in England in the period 1361-1910

Source of China rice prices: Peng Xinwei, p. 459 in Monetary History of China Quanlian Publishing, Shanghai: 1957.

Source of England wheat prices: Wilhelm Abel (1935), Agrarkrisen und Agrarkonjunktur in Mitteleuropa vom 13. bis zum 19. Jahrhundert, Berlin1935,                         Tabelle 1.

The price of grain in China is four times higher than in England for a unit of 100 kg in England – 100 liters in China. A significant increase in food prices in England and China in the seventeenth century is due to the deterioration of the climate and deterioration of the harvest, which causes the expansion of the Manchu to the South and the rise to power the Qing dynasty in China and the religious wars in Europe, the migration of Europeans to other continents and the expansion of the Swedes to the south of the Baltic Sea to Poland so-called Swedish Deluge. The Swedish Deluge resulted from a lack of food caused by an unfavorable climate, which I describe in ResearchGate in a work entitled Short climatic history of Poland (Góralski B. 2018).

1628 1646 Peasant uprising in China under the slogans of equal division of land. Manchurians gain power in China – expansion to the South of the peoples of the north. From 1630 Polish grain exports are falling and it has been rising since 1730. oziębienie historyczne

In the period preceding the rule of the Qing dynasty, the agricultural property was concentrated in China, which later resulted in the upraise of Chinese peasants in the period 1628-1646 under the slogans of equal division of land, i.e. deconcentrating of landed land ownership. In the period 1750-1830 in Europe, there was a great increase in food prices, which caused the French Revolution in overpopulated France and began the process of the enfranchisement of peasants in feudal Europe. Enfranchisement was, in fact, a process of the deconcentrating of agricultural property, which was to improve the feeding of rebellious peasants, i.e. increase food production. Most likely, the processes of enfranchisement were carried out by kings and aristocracy for fear of a revolting peasantry and the urban poor. Protests resulting from high food prices lasted in Europe until the Spring of Nations, i.e. until 1850, that is almost until the improvement of climatic conditions in Europe. After 1830, steamers began to transport American grain to Europe and wheat prices dropped significantly, which lasted until the 21st century. In China during the Qing Dynasty (1650-1850), the population increased to 300 million, but another rise in rice prices ended their rule. It is characteristic that at the same time food prices began to change in England and China from 1880-1890 and in England prices dropped and in China soared. This was due to the displacement of the earth’s shell in such a way that in the US and Europe climatic conditions improved and in China deteriorated, which caused great differences in food prices between England and China. This climate inversion between the West and the East is shown in Figure 3, where between 1921-1925 the fertility of European populations decreases and the fertility of the Japanese population increases. This indicates better climatic conditions in Japan than in Europe at that time. There is also decreasing fertility of European populations (In France, a decrease in fertility since the French Revolution) and happen an increase in fertility of the Russian population until the Bolshevik revolution. This also proves that climatic conditions are improving from west to east Europe (the amount of precipitation has been increasing in Russia since 1850), which greatly affects the feeding of European populations. After 1935, the living conditions of the population deteriorated because the fertility of European populations dropped dramatically. The decreasing fertility chart for the French population testifies to the disappearance of French life optimism after the French Revolution. This was probably caused by a huge concentration of agricultural and industrial property in France, which prevents small businesses from doing business, causing visible economic stagnation and protests by the impoverished population of France. Rescue for France and Europe in the deconcentrating of agricultural and industrial property, in which case there is a possibility of resettlement of Asian peasants to Europe. This will have beneficial effects on the world and the dying economy of the West.

Fig. 3 Total European and Japanese fertility Data from 1801-1950 from the European part of Russia come from (Glass 1965: 97 tab.20). (author of the drawing Bogdan Góralski). Birth rates (crude birth rate) in populations covered by revolutions and wars in the period of 1750-1955.

Data 1750-1840 for France. Dawid Victor Glass, World Population, tab. p. 101

Data 1841-1955 for France, Germany, England, Austria D.V.Glass, World Population, tab. pp. 68-69

Data for Austria-Hungary until 1906.

To calculate the birth rate in the English population, data from the book Wrigley E.A., Schofield R.S., “The Population History of England 1541-1871. A reconstruction. London 1981:

Data from Table 7.8 on pages 208-209 on the size of the population: Quinquennial English population totals 1541-1871

Data from Table A2.3 on pages 496-502 about the number of births.

Data from these two tables above were used to calculate the crude birth rate in England

Data 1801-1950 for the European part of Russia: Dawid Victor Glass, World Population, tab.20, p. 97

Data for Japan: from 1911-1943 from the Statistical Year-Book of the League of Nations, p. 41

Data for Italy: Dawid Victor Glass, World Population, tab. p. 68.

Fig. 4 Demographics of China (orange dots) against the background of changes in rice prices (blue, we play silver per hectoliter of rice) and changes in Chinese dynasties and governments

Source of China rice prices: Peng Xinwei, p. 459 in Monetary History of China Quanlian Publishing, Shanghai: 1957.

Demographics of China data: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Demographics_of_China

Summary

Each increase in rice prices resulted in a decreasing of the Chinese population, and as we said earlier, every major change in rice prices resulted in a change of government in China:

from 1393 MING dynasty,

1650-1850 Qing dynasty,

1928-1950 Republic of China,

from 1950- ??? The People’s Republic of China.

Who will rule China after another future rise in rice prices ???

Warsaw, 30 December 2019                       

My advice for the World in the 2020 year

III.3.1. Climate change and people’s migrations
Climate change has triggered migrations of peoples whose chronology is a record of Earth’s climate cycles. Here is a record of the crises that ended in migration:
• -Approx. 12th century BC marked the migration of people, which ended the reign of Mycenaean civilization and began the so-called dark ages. As a result, the Etruscans appeared in Italy, and Egypt and Palestine were attacked by the so-called peoples of the sea.
• -In the VIII, VII century BC, during the drought in the Asian steppes, the Scythians occupied eastern Europe. At the same time, the great Greek colonization marked out, which expelled the Greek population to emigrate.
• -Approx. 4th century BC the journey of the Celts from northwestern Europe towards the Adriatic Sea, the Black Sea began, which indicates a growing cooling.
• -The beginning of our era in Palestine has marked itself the great socio-economic crisis (provoked the civil war in Galilee, Judea which was called the War of Varus and the uprising in 66 and 132 AD), which testifies to a sudden crisis (rapid drying of the climate) and which caused the exodus of Jews from Palestine.
• The next migration of peoples began in the 4th century CE Huns invasion of Europe. Germanic peoples migrated south to the lands of the Roman Empire, leading to its downfall.
• In the VIII-IX centuries, the Viking expansion continued towards the south of Europe, which may indicate problems with feeding the population of Northern Europe and the climate crisis.
• In the 12th century, Mongols arrived in Europe because of the drought in the Asian steppes.
In the fourteenth century, it got cold and in Europe, there were epidemics, hunger and peasant uprisings.
• The extinction of the Vikings in Greenland since 1400. The Little Ice Age lasted until the 19th century. The peak of chilling in Europe was in the 17th century. At that time, a great migration of the white man to the continents of both the Americas and Asia continued. The great State of Poles-the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire collapsed then.

III.3.2. Climate disaster in the years 2013-2030
By the geophysical and historical data (migrations of people are indicative of climate crises), we know that the climate cycle is repeated every 400 years. It can, therefore, be expected that another major crisis will occur in 2013-2100. We should prepare for it. It will be a climate disaster – a sharp change in the distribution of climate zones, which will drastically reduce global food production. This will bring revolutions, wars, and supra-regional population migrations. There is still time to protect yourself against this. This requires knowledge and ethics on a global scale. Otherwise dark ages will come.

We must adapt to regional climate change and, like our ancestors, migrate to climate-friendly regions of the globe. To do this, we must open borders and adapt state systems to accept migrants and establish a new ethical system uniting all beings.
Warsaw, 1 January 2020 Bogdan Góralski

Sources of Jesus Christ’s ethical system

Sources of Jesus Christ’s ethical system

Bogdan Góralski

Library of the Historical Institute of the University of Warsaw

In my opinion, Jesus Christ was born as a man and became God for those who worship him because His pro-social Teaching was perfect. The ethical achievements of the Israelites were a continuation of the culture of ancient Egypt acquainted by Moses and developed by his followers who created Jewish law.

Ethical cultures of Asia migrated to the Middle East along the caravans route and were also introduced in the philosophy the Middle East after the conquest of Asia by Alexander the Great, who was accompanied by the scientific staff – a team of philosophers-scientists. Jesus Christ in his life met with the ethical ideals of Asian cultures and accepted them and his teaching was a synthesis of the ethics of the Middle and the Far East. We need to find sources for this synthesis.

The teaching of Jesus Christ is not a religion. His teaching is an ideology that leads us to a better future, better use of our possibilities, to live in harmony with our world. We need the continuation and development of Jesus Christ’s ideology in our daily lives so that we become sages, people who love our whole world and his culture.

Whatever we can say about the doctrine of Jesus Christ, His ideology, we must think of His teaching as continuing teaching of ancient prophets from our History. Jesus Christ was the penultimate in a long series of Great Philosophers and understood that we should not talk only about the behavior of people. Don’t just talk about how to live, but live according to your teachings. Jesus Christ shows us the limit of conscious, individual love – sacrificing himself for the good of others. We have no other choice in our lives because whatever we do, we follow Jesus Christ and we must understand it. His teaching was full of human knowledge, nothing more could be added. We must apply His teaching in our daily lives. But the problem is to show how Jesus Christ used the teaching of ancient prophets from Europe, Asia, and Africa? I think we should jointly consider the process of penetrating cultures in antiquity. I believe that the great challenge for modern science is to show that our thinking tends to synthesize human knowledge – the science of sacrificing our weaknesses for a shared better future. The Prophet Muhammad was also a great philosopher who understood the truthfulness of each religion and taught to worship all religions. Every teaching, every thought comes from the surrounding world which is the Best Teacher.

Jesus’ ideology is simple: if you can love your enemies, you can achieve everything as a human being by avoiding unnecessary suffering. The long evolution of philosophy has passed, and Christ has synthesized many philosophies and led to a revolution that continues today. I am a participant in this revolution. Christ’s ideology leads to an honest life, to an honest political system with leaders aware of our goals.

Jesus Christ transformed the Buddha’s teaching on pain and suffering. Jesus Christ taught that you should not avoid suffering, you should suffer voluntarily and in this way, you will achieve happiness. Jesus Christ shows us by his example the way to earthly and eternal happiness.

Recently, I think that all the suffering that I have had in my life is due to my ignorance. I didn’t know what I was doing in my life. In this way, I agree with the teaching of Socrates, Buddha and Jesus Christ. However, my suffering motivated me to self-study and develop my spirit and ethics, so my suffering had a positive effect. My life full of pain was the Best Teacher. This confirms the truthfulness of the teaching of Jesus Christ.

I didn’t know what I was doing. I did not know how difficult the path of life I chose. Anyone can say that. Our history is a long chain of acts of ignorance. The higher is the ignorant person position in the social hierarchy, the greater the damage done to society. There is only one way to break ignorance – the development of knowledge among the whole society, and especially among political elites …

Aeschylus (525-456 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher. He is often described as the father of tragedy. He claimed that suffering is science. Below is an excerpt from the Polish version of Wikipedia:

“The model of Aeschylus’s reality is therefore subordinated to ethical and religious ideas. This model is based on the belief that the world is ruled by divine justice, and the main deities that make it up are Zeus, Mojarra, and Dike. God and human justice are in a close relationship here. They both rely on faith in the order that can be controlled only through suffering …

Jesus Christ fulfilled the message of Aeschylus and imitated the figure of Job (in Polish) from the Hebrew Old Testament.

The system of laws of the Decalogue of Moses was probably the abbreviation of 42 laws of the Egyptian goddess Maat (http://maatlaws.blogspot.com/  ). Moses, who was brought up and shaped by the culture of ancient Egypt, simplified Egyptian law so that an excess of prohibitions would not prevent Israel from exercising the rights. The law must be simple and understandable to be universally applicable. Jesus Christ was shaped by the Decalogue of Moses, whose source was ancient Egypt. In addition, the society of ancient Israel was organized into small local communities, whose tradition of the organization came from Babylonian captivity. So we see Egyptian and Babylonia sources of Christ’s ethics.

During the life of Christ, the overpopulated Judea suffer a great drought. His ideology was a reaction to the social needs that were the result of the crisis in agriculture and society.

Philosophical and religious systems were created depending on the natural environment and the tradition of a given country. An example is China, where ideas of Confucianism and Taoism developed. This is described in the citation:

“Confucius’ thought was born of rather poor land. In his homeland, the small principality of Lu, located in the central, continental part of today’s Shandong Province, he was able to observe man’s struggles with hostile nature from an early age, constant flooding and excess water. The rocky land of the higher parts of Shandong is not very fertile and is reluctant to produce. Every cultivation requires harmonization of efforts, social action is common. It is not easy to rule a country where hunger was not uncommon and people are ready to rebel. Such thoughts had to direct Confucius’ attention to social life, seek an answer to the question of what our place in society is, how the ruler should rule and how much of his subjects should be involved in these governments. “

Taoists claim that the less a prince rules, the better the state of society. The ideal of Taoists is the self-governance of small local communities, and Jesus Christ takes the example of Taoist teaching and creates his small communities, making life easier for poor people from Judea.

Zoroastrianism and Jesus Christ beliefs

An excerpt from Polish Wikipedia:

Zoroastrianism is derived from the original beliefs of Indo-European peoples living in the area of present northern Iran. Muslims call them followers the worshipers of the fire. The Holy Book of Zoroastrian is Avesta, the most important part of which is Gaty, according to the beliefs written by Zoroaster himself. Zoroastrianism was a state religion in the existing Sassanid empire in contemporary Iran and Iraq. He exerted a significant influence on Judaism, and through him also on Christianity and Islam, and according to some religious scholars, there are serious premises to claim that such basic principles of religion as the Last Judgment, the soul wandering after death to hell or heaven, faith in the existence of the devil and the arrival of the messiah arose under the strong influence of Zoroastrianism.

Zoroaster claimed that if we have good thoughts, good speech, good deeds this gives us a happy life.

The thoughts of Confucius and the peace

Józef Marzęcki, Religious-Philosophical Systems of the East, Scholar, Warszawa 1999, p.140, quote:

Zeng Shen, the continuity of Confucius’ thought, considered to be the author of the Great Science (DAXUE, actually dated at the turn of the third and second centuries before Christ), is part of the Siddha (Sishu), thus portraying the way a man to perfection:

“Great learning path leads to enlightenment. Enlightened virtue consists in the cordiality to the people and refraining from desires and goods. The wise refrain leads to having confidence. Confidence leads to calm. Calm leads to peace. Peace leads to a state of concentration. Focus brings prosperity. Things have roots and vertices, things have a beginning and an end. Knowing what was before and after, is a rule close to Tao. The ancients wished enlightenment. Enlightened virtue desires greatness. The largest ones first rule their own state. Desiring to govern their own country, they first achieve the prosperity of their own family. The people who desire the good of the family first fix themselves. Those who want to fix themselves first improve their own minds. Those who want to improve their minds first control their own thoughts. Wanting to control their own thoughts first expand their own knowledge. Enhanced knowledge consists in recognizing things. Recognition of things leads to the highest knowledge. The highest knowledge leads to the confidence of the thought. The confidence thought leads to a reformed mind. Reformed mind leads to improving ourselves. When we are corrected we bring to the prosperity of the family. The prosperity of the family leads to the rule of law. A law-governed state leads to the heavens that bring balance. Starting from the emperor until down to the ordinary people, minds must take care of the roots. You can not destroy the roots, but you have to take care that the growing tree is well cultivated. It can not be so that what is important is neglected, and at the same time what is not important is being important (taken care of). This is called learning the roots, it is called the highest knowledge.

Bogdan Góralski said: “The righteous prince, the righteous king, the elect of the heavens, should ensure the harmony and co-operation of all communities and all religions by bringing to Earth the Ordering Law in the pattern of the established law of the Universe, which will ensure the harmonious development of the earthly communities for the attainment of the Absolute.

The law of Christ about love for enemies mainly introduces wise love in every family that leads to the wise social order.

Love of enemies and peace in the teaching of Jesus Christus

Love Your Enemies

Jesus said to his disciples: You have heard that it was said, You will love your neighbor, and you will hate your enemy. And I say to you: Love your enemies, and pray for those who persecute you; So you will be the sons of your Father who is in heaven; Because He causes His sun to rise above the evil and the good, and He sends rain on the just and the unjust. For if you love those who love you, what reward will you have? Do tax collectors do not do it? And if you only greet your brethren, what special do you do? Do not the heathen do it? So be perfect, how perfect is your heavenly Father (Mt 5,43-48).

The text of the Gospel was too radical for me when I was younger. Love your enemies? … But after years I believe rightfulness of Christ. Thanks to our enemies we become better. Why…??? Thanks to our enemies we have the motivation to live and fight. Enemy means a conflict that forces the preparation for the final battle. We will know the enemy then, we try to be perfect to face him. If we have to win we must outdo the enemy. We begin to educate ourselves to understand the enemy in order to understand the hostile world around us. We collect information about him and this way we learn about the causes of the conflict. We begin to understand the behavior of the enemy and start to sympathize with him. We become more perfect than when we did not have the enemy and were sluggish in complacency. And as we are better or stronger already than the enemy then we pity him and we reach for his hand to the consent. We see the nonsense of victims of the struggle and see the possibility of a peaceful exit from the conflict. The agreement is still enforced by our advantage. We win the war without launching it. So did the ancient Chinese. Ancient Chinese thought: It is wise to win the war without launching it. Let’s love our enemies because they make us perfect.

Let’s love our enemies because they make us perfect.

We owe them our perfection achieved through conflict.

Let us be grateful and love them for what they did to us.

This was taught by Christ 2,000 years ago. What would the world be if we listened to Him … ???

God is perfect but does it mean that He has an enemy too???

Christ and agricultural order

Christ ordered to fulfill the obligations to the landowners that were voluntarily accepted by tenants of agricultural land, which indicates his acceptance of the feudal farming system based on land rent. His orders resulted from an understanding of the essence of Palestine’s social problems based on drought and material poverty of tenants who could not meet their obligations due to reduced yields.

How did Jesus Christ solve the problem of inheriting property ???

According to the Apostolic Letters, early Christian communities were accepting new believers when they offered all their property to the community. Christian communities were providing members with protection against hunger and lawlessness that prevailed in Judea at that time. Probably the transfer of all property to the Christian community was a new solution to the problem of property inheritance, which causes so many problems today. I think that a global company POL-CAT, which no one will inherit, will dispel many problems of the modern world and become a common property of the global community.

POL-CAT can not be taken over by contemporary mafias

The harmony between man and woman will occur when we change the mechanisms of inheritance of property. The POL-CAT Global Enterprise is proposing to change the inheritance system. POL-CAT can not be taken over.

Global peaceful revolution

In the text “Mode of operation of POL-CAT” I write that employees of this company will have an equal share in profits. Why? Because it will force everyone to work hard to increase the company’s income. There will be no financial elite in this enterprise. This is a revolution. Either equal wealth or equal to poverty…

I follow Jesus Christ creating the mode of operation of POL-CAT.

Jesus Christ said, “You know that the rulers oppress the people, and the great ones let them feel their advantage. It should not be between you. If anyone of you wants to be great, let him be your servant. If anyone of you wants to be first among you, let him be your slave. (Matthew 20: 25-27). I follow Jesus Christ creating the mode of operation of POL-CAT.

Jesus Christ’s teaching is not a religion, this is an ideology that leads us to a better future, to better use our abilities, to live in the beauty of our world. We need the ideology of Jesus Christ in our everyday life to become wise and loving men, men loving our world.

You have to follow Jesus Christ now to be happy

Jesus Christ, by his teaching, restored faith in the perfection of our world and with his sacrifice showed us the way to happiness, erased the original sin of Adam and Eve. They reached for fruit from the tree of knowledge of good and evil, they doubted the given world and began to perceive good and bad sides in it. Meanwhile, good and evil is essential elements of our world and lead us in the process of evolution to perfection similar to the perfection of the creators of our living environment. The sacrifice of suffering and the life of Christ is a commentary of his perfect philosophy – voluntary suffering brings eternal happiness. His last lesson: Share bread for His memory (Bible 1998: Luke 22:19), contains the final wisdom of his message because 18 years of my studies led me to the same conclusion that only the abundance of food allow avoiding wars and revolutions and ensures harmonious development of societies and their culture. Other evangelists quote the words of Christ. Share bread and wine for my remembrance – this is a call to vegetarianism so far overlooked in the teaching of Christ. Enough of bread means a worthy life, wine means a life full of good fun. Sharing bread and wine will ensure a dignified and happy life.

The meaning of our life consists of voluntary suffering for the favor of others and it is full of the joy of existence. Christ’s teaching and sacrifice showed us unbounded faith in the perfection of our world against Adam’s doubt. Christ was indifferent to the threat of death on the cross. He fulfilled his mission and trusted God completely.

Christ pointed out that the rabbis are no longer necessary and He has established His representatives among the simple people – the Apostles of the New News: the Law is simple and understandable; to love your enemies and share your bread and wine and to suffer voluntarily to be happy.

Like the idea of vegetarianism, Christ drew from Hinduism and Buddhism, so the idea of voluntary suffering could have been borrowed from Taoism. One of the principles of Taoism is to recommend to creatures voluntarily to belittle itself. Christ has brought this principle to the limits of human possibilities, sacrificing the dignity and inviolability of his person for the good of all beings. He humbly humbled himself and joined with the Absolute by this deed.

Christ was an ideal, a perfect but incomprehensible philosopher and teacher. Because He was the Pharisee’s He raised to the pedestal a despised women, which was almost a sacrilege. The women saved the memory of him and preserved in the memory of generations the worship of the Teacher. The women have been carried their cross and were the strongest supporters of the Church of Christ.

He was with us 2,000 years ago when the climatic crisis impoverished the people of  Judea, but  He was not understood then, so you have to follow Him nowadays, to be happy when a global crisis will come. Jesus Christ by his teaching was been restoring bases of social order in Judea according to principles of Heaven, which prescribe to save of social energy and all energies. Heaven prescribes to save of social energy and all energies.

Philosophy – (ancient Greek φιλοσοφία from Ancient Greek φίλος – love and ancient Greek οοφία – wisdom, translated as “love of wisdom”) – systematic and critical reflections on basic problems and ideas, the desire to know their essence, and a comprehensive understanding of the world. The Bogdan Góralski philosophy is contained in the equation:

WISE LOVE = ENERGY = LIFE

Wise love will give us the energy that will provide us with eternal life for us and future generations.

Warsaw, 8-14 December 2017, 5:27                              Bogdan Góralski

The concentration and deconcentration of agricultural land ownership as an indicator of climate change.

The concentration and deconcentration of agricultural land ownership as an indicator of climate change.

The good and bad fate not only of the Polish nobleman and peasant.

Below is the chapter of Polish book entitled Historia naturalna i zmiany klimatu

Bogdan Góralski

Library if Historical Institute of University of Warsaw

Table of content:

1.Introduction                                                                                                                                         1.

2.The humidity of the climate and the structure of land ownership                                                  1.

3.The mechanism of changes in the concentration of agricultural land ownership                   4.

4.The agricultural system of Rome, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire                                                8.

5. What to do to prevent changes in the concentration of agricultural property?                      9.

6.The bibliography you can find in my Polish book entitled Historia naturalna i zmiany klimatu on ResearchGate

1.Introduction.

This paper discusses the natural phenomenon of changes in the concentration of landed property occurring under the influence of climate oscillations many times in the history of global agriculture. Climate oscillations resulting in changes in air temperature and the amount of precipitation were affecting the profitability of agricultural production, whose changes were causing an increase in the number of small farms or the disappearance of small farms. This phenomenon, which has not yet been recognized, was affecting cyclical political processes over the centuries. This work is a contribution to explaining the role of climate change in the economic-socio-political process of concentration and deconcentration of landed property in Poland in recent centuries.

2.The humidity of the climate and the structure of land ownership

Poland is under the variable influence of Atlantic and continental climates. The causes of climate type changes in Poland are not studied, and learning them would have a positive impact not only on Polish agriculture. It is assumed that the Elbe line is the limit of the impact of both types of climate in Europe. The Atlantic climate is characterized by greater humidity and smaller differences in winter and summer temperatures. The continental climate brings drier air, short hot summers, and long harsh winters. Periodic and regional changes in climate types were having an impact on the profitability of agricultural production, so then smaller, more efficient farms predominated west of the Elbe line, and in the east historically large land ownership dominated (Krasuski 1978: 91). In Poland, regional climate changes are also marked in the north-south direction. In the south, along with the mountain ranges, there is a zone of increased precipitation (Small Statistical Yearbook 1937: 10) improving the conditions of plant cultivation. In these areas the population density increases (compared to northern Poland) which affect the fragmentation of land ownership.

The zone of increased population density in Europe continues in the zone of influence of oceanic climate, which is characteristic for other continents (see East China and West India). The information presented allows drawing the conclusion that the appropriate amount of precipitation (neither too low nor too high) affects the growing population density, and thus the processes of deconcentration of land ownership. In other words, the amount of rainfall that is too low or too high causes a growing concentration of landed property. Wielkopolska is an example of such a region in Poland with too little rainfall and a high concentration of landed property. In the Prussian partition in Wielkopolska, per 100 ha of land owned belonged to farms:

up to 2 ha -2.1% of the land,

2 to 5 ha –3.4%,

5 to 20 ha – 25.2%,

20 to 100 ha – 19.8%,

100 to 1000 ha – 33.0%,

over 1000 ha – 16.5% (Rogala 1956: 25).

Such concentration did not occur at the same time in Galicia (more rainfall), where land ownership was strongly fragmented, because the water conditions allowed to support a family from a smaller farm. As of November 1, 1786, peasants owned 51.3% of arable land in Galicia, including 2/3 of arable land (Groniowski 1976: 75). The following table gives the stratification of the Galician village according to tax burdens in 1893 (Groniowski 1976: 108):

Size
farms
in morgas
Number of
farms
Percentage
of farms
Income amount of farms in   Rhine zlotys
Do 1,94 756 000 46,60 Do 132
1,94-3,90 338 331 20,83 132-264
3,90-9,95 339 929 20,93 264-660
9,95-39,90 178 879 11,02 660-2643
39,90-99,66 10 102   0,62 2643-6607

An example of the adverse impact of the climate on agriculture is the situation of Russian agriculture. The Russian high-pressure zone, blocking the atmospheric fronts from the Atlantic Ocean periodically carrying life-giving rainfall, is sometimes responsible for the difficult situation of the Russian farmer. Historical literature reported that the productivity of a Russian farmer was usually two (League of Nations 1943: 86-91), three times lower (“Modern German peasant (proudly informed Rudolf Martin)  obtained income three times greater than a Russian peasant from the land. To collect this amount grain that the Russian peasant obtains in a field area of 2.6 tithes, German, French peasant needs only half a tithe (Heller 2000: 683). This was due to more rainfall in western Europe than in Russia. Because of too small plots of farms of Russian peasant’s that were common before and after the enfranchisement in the 19th century, and because of too little rainfall from 1880 to the agrarian crisis before the Russian Revolution (exported 15% of grain production (League of Nations 1943: 9 )) caused that the Russian peasants demanded the dividing of large estates. But as a result of the Bolshevik revolution, there was a concentration of agricultural properties in the form of kolkhozes and sovkhozes in Soviet Russia. This (according to statistics (League of Nations 1943: 9)) improved the supply of basic groceries to the Russian population (after 1920). This improvement was probably due to the modernization of agricultural production and the improvement of climatic conditions, i.e. an increase in the amount of precipitation (see Figure No. 21). Russian agriculture is still very vulnerable to the occurrence of permanent drought characteristics for the cooling of the world climate.

The concentration of land property in Poland in the 16th-18th centuries occurred due to a long-lasting decrease in the profitability of agriculture. The falling Cereal prices on the European market (Abel 1935: 174-175) caused by the stagnation of the European population resulting from the adverse climate of the summit of the Little Ice Age, as well as mass emigration caused the collapse of small farms. Probably similar causes at the same time caused the concentration of landed estates in Japan during the Tokugawa Shogunate (Takahasi 1974: 339-348). At the end of the eighteenth century, the processes of deconcentration of agricultural estates began – first in France, and then in the nineteenth century (enfranchisement of peasants) moved to the east of Europe. The processes of enfranchisement of peasants in Europe were probably caused by the sharp increase in grain prices (Abel 1935: 174-175) in 1750-1850 (probably the social protests of the French Revolution and the Spring of Nations resulted from this cause) and the need to ensure the greater agricultural production in conditions of radical cooling and humidity of the climate i.e. deterioration of weather conditions affected on the decrease in agricultural production on the large noble agricultural estates.

The deconcentration of landed estates, the release and enfranchisement of peasants, and the great profitability of agricultural production have unleashed hidden resources of social energy caused large agricultural production, which led to a rapid decline in cereal prices in Europe and calming social sentiment.

It should also be mentioned that from the Civil War (1861-65) to 1920 in the south of the United States, the division of old latifundia (large agricultural estates) into small plots of land cultivated by shareholders (tenants paying rent for crops) continued. The concentration of landed property began again in 1920 and continues to this day (Tomczak 2004). From 1930 to today, the number of farms in the US has decreased from 6.5 million to 2 million, which means that the demand for industrial goods has decreased significantly, the rural population has decreased, the offer of agriculture has decreased, and the demand for agricultural credit has decreased. This is causing the current crisis in the US.

3.The mechanism of changes in the concentration of agricultural land ownership

Many factors have influenced my understanding of the process of concentration and deconcentration of agricultural property over the centuries:

– studying contemporary agricultural literature

– researching current information on world agriculture

– reading historical literature

– research on the Earth’s climate mechanism

– studying the effects of climate change

– understanding the role of freshwater in nature

Studies of the press and modern agricultural literature have revealed the processes of concentration of agricultural property since the beginning of the 20th century on all continents and also in Poland. This made it possible to understand the causal relationship between the general warming and drying of the global climate since the beginning of the 19th century and large-scale economic processes in agriculture. Knowledge of the history of agriculture over the centuries and the repetition of climatic phenomena have strengthened the view on the decisive role of appropriate atmospheric conditions affecting economic processes conditioning the alternating concentration and deconcentration of agricultural property.

The concentration of agricultural ownership in Europe has always been due to the deterioration of farming conditions resulting from a lack of demand for agricultural products. Lack of demand was most often caused by depopulation or, and poor food transport logistics. At that time, agricultural prices decreased. The progressive decrease in the prices of agricultural products caused a worsening of farming conditions for small farms obtaining less profit from a smaller area. Due to the scale effect, small profit from agricultural production affected smaller farms in the first place and did not allow for maintaining them (taxes, costs) and for maintaining owners’ families, which resulted in premiums for larger farms, generating higher profits and having lower percentage costs due to larger production scale. The economic dependence of small agricultural producers on larger farms resulted in the movement of labor resources to the large and concentrated ownership at the expense of small farms (low prices of agricultural products forced the use of cheap labor) and to cities. Small farms fell and were taken over by larger property. The village then depopulated. Latifundia – the noble agricultural estates created fallow lands and forests (afforestation), hedging against falling food prices, which has caused great social tensions during crop failure. Labor expenditure per unit of production is four times higher on small farms than on large ones (Pepliński et al. 2002), so smaller farms with higher unit costs fall out of the market. Increased management efficiency can be obtained by specializing in production. Specialist farms (large cereal farms), extensive and high-intensity farms show the highest efficiency coefficients in relation to the level of net commodity production (Sawa, Parafiniuk 2010). Small farms have to achieve nutritional self-sufficiency, so they run a varied production that makes impossible specialization and high efficiency.

The persistence of this phenomenon (e.g. concentration of land property in the south of the USA has been going on for over 80 years) causes the formation of great latifundia (large agricultural estates). However, it should be noted that latifundia are more prone to crises, with negative effects during long-term climate deterioration. As a consequence of the worse climate in latifundia, there is a larger (than on small farms) drop in agricultural production per hectare and increase food prices. This is illustrated by the example of PRL agriculture. In 1975, in large-scale socialized agriculture, clean production in PLN per PLN 1 of fixed assets was PLN 0.051, and in crop fall 1980 it fell to PLN 0.009. Accordingly, production in small-scale individual farming amounted to PLN 0.292 in 1975 and PLN 0.210 in 1980 – it was 5.7 times higher in 1975 and 23 times higher in 1980 than in large-scale farms (Woś 1985: 331 Table 3). The climate crisis of 1980 caused a 7-fold decrease in production in state-owned farms and a 1.4-fold decrease in small peasant farms, with small farms being many times more productive.

Small farms use capital much better and are more productive per unit of area (Statistical Yearbook of Poland 1967: 256 table 56), so when the climate crisis comes and food becomes more expensive because of the demand for it, economic and political coercion arises causing distraction of great land ownership and the revival of small agricultural property. The phenomenon of deconcentration of great agricultural property was observed before the French Revolution (Taine 1881: 336) and the Spring of Nations (it is about commencing enfranchisement processes). The deconcentration of agricultural assets in France before the French Revolution was forced by rising food prices (huge fallow areas, harsh climatic conditions, and terrible logistics in food transport) and the proletarianization of rural society, as seen in the statistics below.

The composition of the French population was as follows:

Clergy – 130,000 people – 0.47%

Nobility – 173,000 people-0.63%

Townspeople – 581,000 people -21.09%

Peasants ……. 21,437,000 people-77.81% (Macleod-Machlejd 1934: 59)

A more detailed classification of social composition is as follows:

Higher clergy (archbishops, bishops, abbots, priories, canons, etc. 10,000

Lower clergy (priests, vicars, priests without benefits, etc.) 60,000

Religious clergy 60,000

Nobility (including 40,000 old nobility) 173,000

Townspeople – merchants, industrialists, intelligentsia 500,000

Medium-level craftsmen, small traders, etc. 2 925 000

City proletariat 2,385,000

Farmers, possessors (fermiers), buyers, craftsmen 750,000

Peasants owning lands 15,333,000

Farmless peasants 5,354,000      

Total 27,550,000

                                                                    (Macleod-Machlejd 1934: 63)

Arthur Young in a report on a trip to pre-revolutionary France writes that the poor French invested their savings in the ground (Young 1950: 284), encouraged by probably high food prices. The smallest farms producing food for the needs of the owners were created in this way.

The phenomenon of deconcentration of land agricultural  property is influenced by demographic processes. Well, in times of favorable climatic conditions and low food prices (then there is a concentration of ownership), there is an increase in the fertility of societies and an increase in the population – mainly its male part. Low grain prices increase animal production – meat production, the consumption of which increases the sexual desire of the population and increases the fertility rate. When the climate crisis (cooling down) then comes, food becomes more expensive due to a decrease in production, and the population that has just grown too much begins to protest, causing revolutions. Because society sees that vast tracts of land are not cultivated (before the French Revolution more than a quarter of the land in France lay fallow), social pressure arises that leads to the distraction of great landed property and the creation of hundreds of thousands of small farms in France during the 18th century.

The contemporary concentration of agricultural ownership occurring on all continents is the result of difficulties in obtaining access to the markets for selling for the produced food. Existing means of transport are too expensive to transport food to find buyers for subsidized agricultural production of the white man. Potential buyers are in fact poor societies of the equatorial countries, which cannot afford either intensification of their own agricultural production (it would require intensive irrigation in conditions of prevailing warming and drying of the climate) or importing expensive food from the USA and Europe (additionally food prices are too high because of freight prices). Food producer countries: USA, Europe, Canada, are depopulated and their internal demand is decreasing. The problem of obtaining outlets for surplus food produced is, therefore, a logistic problem (cheap delivery of food to the starving of one billion three hundred million people will enable its sale), economic (reduction of demand) and political (subsidies for agricultural production).

4.The agricultural system of Rome, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire.

Rome’s heir was Byzantium, whose traditions were taken over by the Ottoman Empire. The agricultural system operating in the Ottoman Empire was based on an indivisible family farm, supervised by a class of warriors who were representatives of central power. Arable land was the property of the state. Independent peasant farms paid taxes to the state, which kept farmers healthy. The farms used the land on the basis of an indivisible perpetual lease with the possibility of inheritance by one descendant. The land was allocated in an area ensuring family maintenance and generating surpluses to pay taxes and reproduction costs, depending on its fertility from 5 to 15 hectares. Spah warriors benefited from some state taxes and received plots of land for their livelihood, but these were temporary privileges depending on the effects of military service in the sultan’s army. Spah could not own the land. There were constant clashes between the military and the peasants in which the first arbitration instance was a local judge – kadi, elected by the village community. The unresolved conflict was settled by the Sultan, which laid down specific laws to protect peasants against Spah abuse. The Spah had military strength because their duty was to ensure security and the rule of law among peasants. Private ownership of land arose after the decision of the Sultan allocating immunities for the purposes of society. This system worked well during times of strong central power and ceased to pass the exam when the Ottoman Empire underwent by the processes of feudalization and probably there was a concentration of private agricultural property. The development of the Ottoman state and its duration was based on constant conquests ensuring the inflow of new taxes. The stopping of conquests shook the central authority of the empire and the functioning agricultural system. There are reports that in the 17th and 18th centuries agricultural production in the Empire decreased, there was huge inflation (increase in cereal prices) and a state crisis (Inalcik, Quataert, 2008: 61-161). Inflation reduced the value of taxes usually collected in money, weakening the functioning of the power center, whose costs must have been enormous in such a large state. The weakening of the center resulted in the destabilization of the system of power and the weakening of the agricultural system of the state by the likely transfer of power over the land and the state to the hands of the army and feudal lords.

5. What to do to prevent changes in the concentration of agricultural property?

The agricultural system should be based on an indivisible family farm leased perpetually from the state with the possibility of inheritance by one descendant after providing parent-farmers with a pension. Taxation should depend on the production capacity of the farm. The non-hereditary nobility organizes the supervision of the functioning of the system of production and sale of agricultural products and making its income dependent on production efficiency. As the coming cooling of the climate will increase food prices, it will be profitable to produce it even on small plots. This will provide income to masses of immigrant farmers who will arrive in the fertile plains of Europe and North America as well as the income to the nobility. The main advantages of maintaining land control in the hands of the nation’s elite – the nobility are preventing in the future:

– the dividing of land ownership by family divisions,

– buying land to concentrate land ownership,

and also:

– optimizing the organization and financing of food production and processing.

– ensuring the existence of an elite directly interested in increasing agricultural production

Belonging to the rural nobility will depend on the ethical and social attitude of a member of the modern Polish nation. Nobility will be a reward for an exemplary ethical and social attitude in cultivating Polish culture and developing the Polish state.

Translated in Warsaw, 20-21 December 2019                           Bogdan Góralski

6.Bibliography you can find in my Polish book entitled Historia naturalna I zmiany klimatu

Evolution or revolution?

Evolution or revolution?

Evolution is a slow process of improving what is imperfect. Revolution is a paroxysm of hatred destroying the effects of evolution. What path will we choose in the future?

Aggression, revolutions, wars and climate change

Aggression, revolutions, wars and climate change

Bogdan Góralski

Library of Historical Institute of the University of Warsaw

1. Aggression

Failure to satisfy basic desires causes stress and actions aimed at eliminating the cause of dissatisfaction, and in the event of prolonged failure, aggression directed at those guilty of this condition – the elite leaders. Aggression by Baron and Richardson: is any form of behavior that aims to cause harm or injury to another living being, motivated to avoiding causes of aggression. (…) The primary motive for aggressive behavior may be either the desire to cause harm to another person as an expression of negative feelings, as in the case of hostile aggression or intention to achieve a specific goal by means of an act of aggression, as in the case of instrumental aggression (Krahé 2005: 17).

From the multitude of views on the causes of aggression, I chose the hypothesis of frustration-aggression. There is an idea that there is a force inside the body that, when interacting with external events, leads to aggressive behavior and is an externalization of the aggressive drive as a motivation for aggressive behavior:

Unlike instinct, the drive is not an ever-present, growing source of energy, but it activates only when the body is deprived of the means to meet some vital need. Then the drive plays the role of a stimulating force, aimed at ending the state of deprivation. In the first version of the frustration-aggression hypothesis (Dollard J., Doob LW, Miller NE, Mowrer OH, Sears RR, Frustration and aggressin, Yale University Press, New Haven 1939), aggression is interpreted as a result of the drive to discharge the state of frustration, with frustration is defined as the external disruption of goal-oriented behavior. Therefore, the experience of frustration activates the drive to act against the source of frustration and this drive is responsible for performing aggressive action, (…). Whether or not frustration causes an aggressive response depends on the influence of the intermediary variables. Fear of punishment for overt aggression or unavailability of a source of frustration are moderators who inhibit aggression. Such mediating variables may also explain the phenomenon of “displaced” aggression that is often observed – from a source of frustration to a more accessible or less fearful purpose. (Krahé 2005: 38).

The phenomenon of displaced aggression explains the occurrence of “scapegoats” – surrogate targets of aggression that unload social frustration resulting from min. from the climate crisis.

Muzafer Sherif, an American psychologist of Turkish origin, created the Realistic Conflict Theory after an experiment at Robbers Cave. It states that, in conditions where the resources desired by various human groups are limited, this leads to a conflict between them which creates mutual prejudice and discrimination. As soon as mutual hostility arises, returning to ‘peaceful’ relations between the groups is very difficult and the conflict can turn into an open confrontation (Szymborski 2011: 152).

The genesis of revolutionary actions:

• economic crisis and disorganization of the state system

• Growing feelings of unmet needs (in the form of desperation, hopelessness, feelings of dissatisfaction, etc.)

• Growing criticism of social order

• The appearance of a group or class solidarity

• Creating ideology or “revolutionary faith”

The latter process is described either in the form of an irrational interpretation of reality (the role of a symbol) or a rational attempt at a collective interpretation of the social world (Pacewicz 1983: 100).

Ideologies are the most complex form of manifesting great values. They express values ​​in historically specific categories, e.g. the pursuit of specific needs is generalized in the form of the need for freedom and meets a specific cultural message (Pacewicz 1983: 151).

For example, Polish workers in August 1980 wanted freedom because it ensured the existence of a free market system, which was to contribute to improving their material fate because the example of the West indicated that the free market system leads to satisfying the needs.

Society is constantly testing various solutions to crises in spontaneously renewing groups, and if the program of the selected group matches the feelings of the majority, they are rewarded with social support.

S. Milgram and H. Toch (1969) pointed out that failure to meet needs does not, of itself, lead to a social movement. It is also necessary to experience the removability of the source of frustration, a high level of sensitivity of the possibility of individual or group influence on social reality and the resulting desire to influence this state of affairs. Four psychological processes lead to revolutionary behavior:

• a decrease in the sense of meeting needs

• activating the sphere of “great” or “basic” values

• lowering the legitimacy of social order

• an increase in the sense of political efficiency (Pacewicz 1983: 101).

In 1962, J. C. Davies proposed a one-factor theory of revolutionary phenomena, in which the main explanatory element is the discrepancy between the expected and actual level of satisfying social needs. The theory describes diachronic dependencies, and more specifically it deals with the relation between two historical processes:

• Changing expectations in meeting the needs and

• the real level of meeting the needs.

According to the author, this is not an objective level of meeting needs, but the relationship between what people expect and what they get is a decisive factor in the genesis of the revolution (Pacewicz 1983: 86).

In the paper (Dimoso 2009: 96-99), Western literature is discussed in detail about the factors influencing the subjective sense of well-being (subjective well-being SWB). As the cited studies show, the amount of income affects SWB only up to some point and then SWB is no longer growing. However, SWB is significantly affected by a decrease in income (i.e. an increase in maintenance costs *). In addition, increasing SWB is more influenced by having a job than social welfare for the unemployed – non-wage (psychological) costs are more important than economic. Many studies have stated that there is a negative correlation between age and SWB, i.e. as the age increases up to 30, 40 years, SWB decreases, above 40 years SWB already increases.

This indicates that younger societies are more aggressive and threatened by revolution than older ones.

The quoted opinions explain the role of the lack of satisfaction of human needs in the escalation of social conflicts. I claim that the climate crisis limiting the satisfaction of human needs is a factor that triggers the mechanism of the social crisis. The crisis mechanism after the climate shock was previously recognized by the studies of French and English authors (Dupâquier 1989: 189-199), who studied climate crises and their effects in the 17th and 18th centuries in England and France. And they also came to the conclusion that the mechanism of history is largely shaped by the climatic conditions of the area. The climate shock triggers the socio-economic process leading to a state of equilibrium through the next stages of the cycle.

2,Sex ratio – masculinization rate and aggressive social moods.

In the article, I will present theses that require further research of sociologists, biologists, and historians, as well as demographers. Perhaps, thanks to the knowledge we have gained, we will be able to improve political activities that will avoid future revolutions and wars. My yesterday’s conversation with colleagues at work Krystyna Kasztelewicz and Ewa Szutkowska, who said that her son Antek’s pre-school group was dominated by boys, she gave me an idea for an article. Many years ago, I listened to a radio broadcast about research on the sex of children in African tribes. The broadcast showed that well-fed mothers more often give birth to boys. Ewa Szutkowska said that male fetuses are weaker than girls and die more often during early pregnancy. It would result from the fact that male fetuses need better living conditions (for their mother) to survive. It would then be necessary to check whether girls are born during periods of malnutrition of mothers as stronger feminine fetuses to birth more often and dominate in populations of malnourished societies?

Confirmation of this observation I found in the work of the Łódź sociologist Piotr Szukalski entitled Account of births of boys and girls, link: http://dspace.uni.lodz.pl:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11089/5325/2014-08%20Sex%20ratio.pdf?sequence=1

 Fig.1 Masculinization rates for live births in Poland in 1927-2013

Chart source: Piotr Szukalski, Birth report of boys and girls,

http://dspace.uni.lodz.pl:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/11089/5325/2014-08%20Sex%20ratio.pdf?sequence=1

The above graph of masculinization coefficient – sex ratio in Poland, in the period of several dozen years, from pre-war Poland to the present day, indicated a strong advantage of boys’ births in pre-war Poland (indicating better feeding of mothers), during the period of the PRL the constantly decreasing masculinization coefficient indicating worse nutrition of Polish mothers, and finally, the growing masculinization ratio which proves better nutrition of contemporary Polish society and Polish mothers. The conclusions drawn from the observation of the above chart confirm the results of my research proving that it was the climate crisis of the 70. XX century and the global increase in food prices that influenced the revolutionary attitudes of malnourished Polish society. Failure to fulfill the basic duty of the PRL authorities, which is agricultural policy conducive to adequate nutrition of the society, and excessive and unprofitable food exports to the Soviet Union, caused social protests and the Solidarity revolution.

An analysis of the masculinization – the sex ratio and other demographic indicators, as well as the food situation of societies, can provide conclusions about the possible course of social moods, which have usually surprised politicians until now. Conducting research on these issues can help preserve peace of society and global peace. The war mechanism described in the following article indicates that wars break out after an initial period of good nutrition of societies, in which the population is growing with a strong predominance of young men, followed by a climate crisis and an increase in food prices bring an increased level of social aggression. Unrealized procreation ambitions and sexual stress associated with the difficulty of finding partners causes young men to be aggressive and favor of politicians calling for war. This is only a step away from the aggressive behavior of entire countries.

The contemporary situation related to good nutrition of societies has been prevailing since the 1980s and the masculinization rates of most countries of the world have probably increased during this time. The climate crisis, which I forecast in the near future, will affect global aggressive pro-war attitudes.

Will we be able to prevent them?

Warsaw, January 6, 2016 at 12:21                                          Bogdan Góralski

The trick is to build without destroying anything

The trick is to build without destroying anything

In order to build a modern progressive society, it is necessary to provide it with solid foundations for social peace. This foundation of social peace is productive agriculture that is resistant to changing environmental conditions and provides sufficient food resources. Poland had such a resistant agricultural system but the communists destroyed it demonstrating a lack of historical and natural knowledge. The pre-war agricultural system would have easily adapted to the changing demand for food products because it would have been enough deconcentrating it, which was slowly done in the Second Polish Republic. Today Polish agriculture is destroyed because former communists are busy making up money and agriculture problems were left and polish agriculture exists only thanks to subsidies for agricultural production from the EU. It is necessary to restore the pre-war agricultural production system in Poland and modify it accordingly. The Christian principle must be used: “and forgive us our sins as we forgive our culprits.” The reconciliation of nations in Poland can only take place on the basis of a return to the eternal Polish national tradition, with strictly using the principles of the Christian tradition. Then we could have said that Poles are a wise nation and are building the new one without destroying the old one, that they are building a new free society using their national traditions, that they are building national traditions on a stable basis.

Warsaw, 18 December 2019, Bogdan Góralski

Sztuką jest budowanie bez niszczenia czegokolwiek

Aby zbudować nowoczesne postępowe społeczeństwo, należy zapewnić mu solidne podstawy dla pokoju społecznego. Podstawą pokoju społecznego jest produktywne rolnictwo odporne na zmieniające się warunki środowiskowe i zapewniające wystarczające zasoby żywności. Polska miała tak odporny system rolny, ale komuniści zniszczyli go, pokazując brak wiedzy historycznej i przyrodniczej. Przedwojenny system rolny z łatwością dostosowałby się do zmieniającego się popytu na produkty spożywcze, ponieważ wystarczyłby dekoncentrować go, co powoli robiono w II Rzeczypospolitej. Dziś polskie rolnictwo jest zniszczone, ponieważ byli komuniści są zajęci zarabianiem pieniędzy i problemy rolne zostały pozostawione, a polskie rolnictwo istnieje tylko dzięki dotacjom na produkcję rolną z UE. Należy przywrócić przedwojenny system produkcji rolnej w Polsce i odpowiednio go zmodyfikować. Należy zastosować zasadę chrześcijańską: „i przebacz nam nasze grzechy, gdy wybaczamy naszym winowajcom”. Pojednanie narodów w Polsce może nastąpić jedynie na podstawie powrotu do odwiecznej polskiej tradycji narodowej, przy ścisłym przestrzeganiu zasad tradycji chrześcijańskiej. Moglibyśmy zatem powiedzieć, że Polacy są mądrym narodem i budują nowy, nie niszcząc starego, że budują nowe wolne społeczeństwo, wykorzystując swoje tradycje narodowe, że budują tradycje narodowe na stabilnych podstawach.

Warszawa, 18 grudnia 2019 r., Bogdan Góralski

Real Christmas

Real Christmas

In my previous texts, I formulated the revolutionary thesis that the model enterprise of the future should operate without profit. How it’s possible? Well, the entire benefit of an enterprise should be equally shared among all employees. All company employees, including the owner and management, will receive the same pay. Everyone will be equally motivated to work effectively, which will determine the amount of remuneration.

In principle, the idea of such an organization of production, educational, agricultural, political enterprises is a return to the tribe community, which was united by a collective treasure. The communist state was, in fact, a transfer of the idea of the common treasury to a higher level of all society. Not everyone understood such an abstract notion requiring people of high culture and ethics because (here I will use a metaphor) the distance of ordinary people from this common treasure was too great to motivate to good work. It would be best if you created local enterprises where people would see and feel a simple relationship better – when I work better, I have more. The presented idea of a local enterprise – the local community of employees that work together for the common good will be closer to the reasoning of the people and is already being implemented evolutionarily in the world. We need to accelerate this evolution in enterprises in a thoughtful way to achieve in the future an organization of the communist state.

The creator of the enterprise, the creative businessman, should organize them in such a way that it brings high earnings to everyone, even when the creative businessman devotes himself to the organization of a new enterprise. The crew of the old enterprise will be still giving a share in profit with the ingenious businessman with gratitude for the excellent work. When a creative businessman sets up ten such enterprises, he will receive ten average salaries from these enterprises and will be highly rewarded according to his talents. Such an organization of the enterprise, when it becomes widespread, will bring the desired harmony between employees and the business class because it will provide many jobs with good earnings. Such a social mechanism will stimulate the business creativity of societies and contribute to the improvement of global prosperity. Maybe then the real Christmas will come – the creation of a community of equal and happy beings who will achieve the goal of evolution – the creation of a new virtual world.

Warsaw, 17 December 2019, 17:30 Bogdan Góralski

Prawdziwe Boże Narodzenie

W moich poprzednich tekstach sformułowałem rewolucyjną tezę, że wzorcowe przedsiębiorstwo przyszłości powinno funkcjonować bez zysku. Jak to możliwe? Otóż cały zysk przedsiębiorstwa powinien być równo dzielony pomiędzy wszystkich pracowników. Wszyscy pracownicy przedsiębiorstwa łącznie z właścicielem i zarządem będą otrzymywać to samo wynagrodzenie.Wszyscy będą jednakowo zmotywowani do efektywnej pracy od której będzie zależeć wysokość wynagrodzenia.

Zasadniczo idea takiej organizacji przedsiębiorstw produkcyjnych, edukacyjnych, rolniczych i politycznych jest powrotem do społeczności plemiennej, którą zjednoczył wspólny skarb. Państwo komunistyczne było bowiem przeniesieniem idei wspólnego skarbu na wyższy poziom całego społeczeństwa. Nie wszyscy rozumieli tak abstrakcyjne pojęcie wymagające ludzi wysokiej kultury i etyki, ponieważ (tutaj użyję metafory) odległość zwykłych ludzi od tego wspólnego skarbu była zbyt duża, aby motywować do dobrej pracy. Byłoby najlepiej, gdybyście stworzyli lokalne przedsiębiorstwa, w których ludzie mogliby lepiej widzieć i czuć prosty związek – kiedy pracuję lepiej, mam więcej. Przedstawiony pomysł lokalnego przedsiębiorstwa – lokalnej społeczności pracowników, którzy współpracują dla wspólnego dobra, będzie bliżej rozumowania ludzi i jest już wdrażany ewolucyjnie na świecie. Musimy przyspieszyć tę ewolucję w przedsiębiorstwach w przemyślany sposób, aby w przyszłości osiągnąć organizację państwa komunistycznego.

Twórca przedsiębiorstwa czyli kreatywny biznesmen powinien je tak zorganizować aby przynosiło wszystkim wysokie zarobki nawet wtedy gdy kreatywny biznesmen poświęci się organizacji nowego przedsiębiorstwa. Wtedy załoga starego przedsiębiorstwa z wdzięczności za dobrą pracę będzie nadal utrzymywała pomysłowego biznesmena. Gdy kreatywny biznesmen założy 10 takich przedsiębiorstw będzie otrzymywał 10 średnich wynagrodzeń z tych przedsiębiorstw i będzie odpowiednio do swych uzdolnień wynagradzany. Tak organizacja przedsiębiorstwa gdy się upowszechni przyniesie upragnioną harmonię pomiędzy pracownikami a klasą biznesmenów bo zapewni wiele miejsc pracy z dobrymi zarobkami. Taki  społeczny mechanizm pobudzi kreatywność biznesową społeczeństw i wpłynie na polepszenie globalnego dobrobytu. Może wtedy właśnie nadejdzie prawdziwe Boże Narodzenie- powstanie społeczeństwa równych i szczęśliwych istot, które zrealizują cel ewolucji- kreację nowego wirtualnego świata.

Warszawa, dnia 17 Grudnia 2019 roku, 17:30                               Bogdan Góralski

Causes of Wars in Europe

Causes of war in Europe

World War II was a logical consequence of World War I and the terms of the Versailles Treaty. The international tension resulting from the increase and masculinization of the European population at the turn of the century, as well as the aggressive attitude of societies resulting from the drastic global increase in food prices resulting from the cooling of the global climate, led to I World War, the Russian, Chinese and Mexican Revolutions. The Treaty of Versailles did not remove international tension and even intensified it by aggravating the situation of European losers. As a result of two European wars, the US gained an advantage over Europe, Russia, and Japan. Perhaps this was the main goal of the American’s elite, who had an overwhelming influence on the conditions of peace after World War I. The Berlin-Rome-Tokyo Axis countries had a similar internal situation before World War II. The growing overpopulation and lack of food supply for nations have set the direction for expansion – the development of industrial production and exports to obtain funds for food imports. However, raw materials and outlets were needed. Enemies of Germans, the Allies also fought for raw materials and markets for their economies, limiting the possibilities of peaceful expansion of the Axis countries. This resulted in armaments and military expansion that providing outlets and raw materials for Germany, Japan,and Italy, which enabled the feeding of their nations. The post-war policy of the Allies ensured the implementation of pre-war economic and export expansion plans for the Axis countries, providing food for their societies. These countries, however, were already subordinated to American hegemony. Such policies could have been pursued earlier, avoiding tensions, conflicts, and war. Similarly and today, the US is restricting Russia’s fuel expansion, which determines its food security. This led to a conflict between Russia and Ukraine, in the background of which Russia’s strategic interests are at stake. The main routes of access to the Black Sea ports run through the territory of Ukraine and this is the cheapest way to export the surplus of Russian grain. These Russian grain surpluses are the salt in the eyes of European and American elites, which is why they want to free Ukraine from the sphere of Russian influence. In addition, Ukraine has always been Russia’s food base. The continuation of the policy leading to the Russia-Ukraine conflict by the US and the EU may lead to the desperation of the Russian elite, which threatens war. Conflicts in international exchange are growing – the lack of rare earth resources conditioning the development of modern technologies. It is necessary to allow free market play on the commodities and raw materials market, which will enable the development of Russia and China, and ensure the possibility of demographic discharge of overpopulated lands in Asia, which will contribute to maintaining world peace. It is necessary to allow specialization of national production using regional predispositions and conducive to international economic exchange and to unify ethical systems to avoid foreign-enemy syndrome. Above all, forceful solutions that limit the development of exchange and the free formation of markets should be avoided. It is necessary to open borders and introduce in Europe, the USA, Russia, and Ukraine a modern feudal tillage system based on land lease, which will contribute to the increase in agricultural production and will ensure the improvement of the nutrition of the starving world. The global increase in agricultural production is the only hope for peace. Warsaw 2013 Bogdan Góralski

Slaves of the Doctrine

V.4.55. Slaves of the Doctrine

As I showed in previous articles and in the book Man and climate, a population increase of the European societies in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries caused food problems in. Germany and Russia. The simultaneous strong masculinization of European societies – men are more aggressive than women, caused an increase in social aggression in Europe caused by a global increase in food prices resulting from the global climate crisis on the eve of World War I. Food production in Europe was too small to meet the needs of European Christian civilization. 15% of cereals needed by the European population were imported from the USA. European governments have recognized that the only way is to bleed nations in a universal war, and the problem of too large a male population will be solved. Inner peace in Europe will return and the elites will retain their privileges. World War I broke out and ended with the Versailles peace, which immediately caused a new war due to lack of food in Germany. Germany’s aggression was also directed mainly to the east this time.

Could German aggression have been stopped in a Versailles treatise? This question has important consequences for our present day, because currently, Poland is in a similar situation of a threat of war, this time from the east, from Russia.

Polish pre-war agriculture was highly concentrated because it was dominated by large agricultural estates. In Poland, laws have been passed regarding the division of agricultural properties that was raised, which was slowly implemented. The male population in Poland was large and the army did not complain about the lack of a recruit. There was no fear of war. The social problem was the lack of land for those wanting to cultivate it and there was permanent colonization of Ukraine. Holders of agricultural property were slaves to the doctrine of inviolable private property and did not want to divide their agricultural property among Poles craving arable land. Strong concentration of agricultural assets limited agricultural production for which there were no clients for sale. Polish political elite could not get along with Germany and Soviet Russia to export Polish food. If the economic maneuver was carried out and the large Polish land estates were divided among those willing, the production of Polish food would increase and cheap export to hungry Germany and Russia would be possible. Perhaps then the aggression of the German and Russian communities would have been diminished and wars could be avoided.

After World War II, the new authorities parceled large landed estates and the problem of the famine of land disappeared. Pre-war agricultural production was quickly restored due to the fact that small plots of land are intensively cultivated and give much more agricultural production than large land estates. However, the great agricultural culture of the former owners was lost, which turned out to be an insurmountable barrier in further increasing agricultural production in Poland. Enormous funds were allocated to the development of inefficient state-owned farms and agricultural cooperatives because the new authorities were slaves to the doctrine of collective land ownership. However, Polish agricultural production did not grow despite the guaranteed sales of Polish food to starved Soviet Russia, which was dominated by inefficient kolkhozes and sovkhozes. After the Soviet system collapsed and Poland regained independence, food exports to Russia collapsed and agricultural exports to the rich West began. However, global food prices were falling and this led to another concentration of agricultural ownership in Poland. Small farmers were dying and their place was occupied by large tenants of farms on thousands of hectares. Poland’s agricultural production is decreasing despite the great global demand for food. Russia alone imports food worth 50 billion dollars. The coming climate crisis will cause a drastic increase in the prices of agricultural products and Russia will not be able to afford such imports. This may result in the need for aggression to the food-rich lands, i.e. to the west.

The way out is to increase agricultural production, e.g. in Poland, to cheaply meet the nutritional needs of Russia – the nuclear superpower. This will be possible by the dividing of large agricultural assets in Poland, but in such a way that there will be no re-concentration of agricultural property in the future. It seems that this is only possible if the feudal system in agriculture is restored, in which the role of landowners would be fulfilled by not hereditary owners – a new not hereditary nobility. They would settle on small leased plots of land of resettled  Asian and African farmers because only they are able to colonize huge areas of arable land in Poland and Europe. In this way, we would return to the agricultural traditions of the Byzantine state and solve the supply food problems of the East, West, and South. Let us become followers of the doctrine of giving land to the hands of professional farmers loving this way of life. Let’s rehabilitate the former nobility.

Meanwhile, in Western countries, agriculture, instead of producing more foods, has become a way of earning money having no regard for the needs of the global community. In my opinion, this must be changed.

Warsaw, January 28, 2016, 5:04 Bogdan Góralski

Polish -Russian cooperation problems

Polish -Russian cooperation problems

Bogdan Góralski

 Library of the Historical Institute of the University of Warsaw

olish -Russian cooperation problems

Bogdan Góralski

 Library of the Historical Institute of the University of Warsaw

Causes for the partitions of Poland

After a period of high prices for grain in Western Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries, when Polish nobility and peasants with burghers recorded a period of development and prosperity, came a crisis of low prices and a decrease in the volume of exports of Polish grain and the other products. This was due to optimum rainfall for growing cereals in the area west of the Elbe, which caused food self-sufficiency in Western Europe. At the same time, in Poland in the Vistula basin, minimal rainfall was noted in the period 1700-1780, which probably caused worse harvest and difficulties in transporting grain with the use of Polish rivers. Shrinking export markets and lowering prices for grain began in Poland the processes of concentration of agricultural property, which led to the collapse of small noble and peasant farms, and to the development of magnate fortunes. The concentration of agricultural property occurs during a long-lasting fall in the prices of agricultural products, and the deconcentration during price increases.

The political role of impoverished Polish nobility has decreased, and the influence of magnates increased sky-high. Along with the impoverishment of the nobility, nobility democracy was subject to decline and decline, which increased the power of magnates. Simultaneously with the depopulation of the villages, a typical phenomenon during the concentration of agricultural ownership, the cities to which the impoverished rural population protected itself and the urban proletariat grew and appeared the tenents of farm tenants on magnates’ estates. In the 17th and 18th centuries, Poland and the Polish village became impoverished and depopulated, Polish culture reduced flights, and the neighboring powers grew stronger, bribing with the bribes and privileges of Polish magnates and blocking reforms in Poland, which led to partitions. It is likely that this state was caused by regional climate changes unfavorable for Poland in Western, Central and Eastern Europe.

As a result of the prolonged economic downturn of 1655-1760 resulting from the negative climatic conditions of the Little Ice Age summit and wars, Poland became depopulated, which made it impossible to regain economic strength in the conditions of the improving economic situation at the end of the 18th century associated with a significant rise in food prices in Europe. This was reflected in the regulations of the 3rd May Constitution calling on foreigners to settle in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The internal crisis of the state and noble democracy caused by the lack of exports and labor in Poland continued. The magnate anarchy and their properties grew in Poland, which was the result of economic processes taking place in the 17th and 18th centuries. Populations of well-organized hostile absolute monarchies of Prussia and Russia grew. Cereal prices in Europe were rising slowly. This caused an imbalance of forces to the detriment of Poland, the demand of the invaders for new lands and subsequent partitions of Poland. In 1788-1790 Poland spent PLN 30 million on the army, Russia 250, Austria 180, Prussia PLN 70 million.

Visible in the drawing (Fig. 14 and 15) in the book Man and climate (link: http://www.depot.ceon.pl/handle/123456789/4855), changes in the amount of precipitation show that in Russia there was a long decline in cereal production in the years 1850-1870 resulting from a huge drought. Droughts lasted in Russia probably the entire eighteenth century. It is possible that the drought began in 1750, which may have forced the tsarist authorities to invade depopulated Poland and partitions. Investigating the history of the amount of rainfall in Europe and Asia will determine whether regional climate change and long-term reduction of atmospheric precipitation forced the tsarist authorities to expand on the west, into Poland, to neighboring lands for ensuring purposes to maintain the army and increase tsarist income. It would also allow deciding whether it was the prolonged lack of rainfall that weakened Polish agriculture, and thus the economy and the Polish State?

Confirmation of the above concept is brought by the work analyzing atmospheric precipitation in the Aral Sea basin. Changes in the salinity of the Aral Sea waters read from its bottom sediments indicate significant changes in sea level, which depended on the amount of precipitation in the south of Asian Russia. This work indicates that in the years 1600-1750 in the catchment areas of rivers supplying the Aral Sea, precipitation was much more abundant (See Fig 5 in the paper: Variability in precipitation, temperature and river runoff in W Central Asia during the past ~ 2000 yrs, Hedi Oberhänsli, Kateřina Novotná, Anna Píšková, Sabine Chabrillat, Danis K. Nourgaliev, Abilgazy K. Kurbaniyazov, Tomáš Matys Grygar) than in 1750-1795, which ensured food supply and allowed population growth. The abundance of food caused an increase in the Asian (and probably also European) population of male newborn babies, which resulted in an increase in the size of the army, which grew for 150 years along with the increase in the Russian population. I describe the mechanism of growth of the male population in the text titled Sex ratio – masculinization rate and social mood in Poland, link: http://www.eioba.pl/a/5094/sex-ratio-wspolczynnik-maskulinalizacji-a-spoleczne-nastroje-w Poland.

From 1750 to 1880, the amount of precipitation in the Aral Sea basin was steadily decreasing (this suggests no precipitation in the area east of the Elbe), which worsened the conditions of life of the population living in Russia and the tsarist authorities, in order to avoid internal unrest caused by starvation of the subjects, they used a large number of troops during the partition of Poland and territorial expansion to the southern regions of Central Asia. The decision on territorial expansion was probably dictated by the difficult internal situation caused by the lack of food and the growing level of aggression of the people. Territorial expansion caused a discharge of social sentiment and financial benefits for tsarism. The lack of sufficient precipitation in the areas east of the Elbe, which decreased steadily eastwards to Central Asia, was caused by the regional climate inversion causing cooling and precipitation in Western Europe and their absence east of the Elbe (see chapter V.4.48). This caused the Tsarist’s decision to attack to the west, on Poland with large surpluses of food needed to feed the excessive number of Russian subjects during the climate crisis. The above chart of changes in the growth of Russian recruits recruited relative to their year of birth confirms the above reasoning.

From 1750 to 1795 was the decrease of heights of conscripts resulting from the increasing malnutrition of the Russian population. Probably because of this malnutrition  the social aggression of the Russians increased, which caused the Tsarist’s decision to attack Poland rich in food and other wealth. Since 1800, the height of the conscripts has been growing steadily, indicating the abundance of food in the Russian Empire, resulting from rising rainfall. The masculinization rate of the Russian population increased until the Russian Revolution because good nutrition of the population favors the birth of boys. As a result, the Russian population, in which young men predominated, became more and more aggressive (testosterone in men), which contributed to the increase of revolutionary moods in Russian society, whose population grew rapidly until the revolution. World War I and the activities of revolutionaries, including the Bolsheviks, caused the outbreak of the revolution and the civil war.

Stalin’s rule destroyed the best Russian farmers, which up to today is provoking of food shortage in Russia. This causes the feminization of the Russian population, which today has the lowest masculinization rate in the world indicating malnutrition and the predominance of women in the Russian population – see link (.https: //en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_countries_by_sex_ratio). It follows that food is a strategic commodity for Russia, ensuring internal peace. The climate change coming in the colder years of 2019-2040 will reduce rainfall in Russia, which may cause internal anxiety and Russia’s aggressive behavior towards its neighbors. To calm the Russian power, you need to provide him with food but for that Poland is not ready. Every year, Russia imports food worth about USD 50 billion, and this is probably not enough to meet the nutritional needs of Russians. In the face of the destruction of the farmers’ layer, Russian agriculture is mechanized and only produces food whose cultivation is mechanized. During the Soviet occupation of Poland, Russia imported huge quantities of vegetables from Poland, but this import was excessive and impoverished the Polish market in food. Stalin murdered part of the Polish pre-war intelligentsia (the murder in Katyn and post-war terror), including Polish landowners. It was the preparation of the field for governments Commie-Jew. The pre-war Polish elite would not agree to Poland’s unprofitable food exports to Russia, which is probably why they were destroyed by Stalin. According to the Central Statistical Office, food production of the People’s Republic of Poland was at most equal to pre-war agricultural production and was not sufficient to ensure adequate export volume to Russia. Private agriculture was destroyed and inefficient state-owned farms and cooperatives were subsidized. The Soviet Union cut the branch it was sitting on, because when the climate crisis of the 70-80s came. Of the twentieth century and agricultural production dropped enormously, food was not enough for Poles and Russians, and the Solidarity revolution began in Poland, which caused the collapse of the communist block.

Nowadays, Poland exports food mainly to the EU and it is a profitable export. However, recovery of the export of Polish food to the Russian market is currently impossible due to the insufficient Polish agricultural production. Increasing food exports to Russia would increase the prices of agricultural products in the Polish market. Only a return to the feudal system and making it humanitarian will contribute to the intensive use of Poland’s agricultural potential and increase the production of Polish food. This can be achieved only through the rehabilitation of the Polish nobility and landowners, whom the land  Stalin and the Jewish Communists took in the so-called land reform. So we see the historical paradox because it is in the interest of modern Russian elites to restore the order of pre-war and even 16th-century Poland. The impending climate crisis will reduce Russia’s agricultural production and internal unrest will begin. The way out is Russia’s action to support the reforms of the Polish socio-economic system that can efficiently meet Russian needs. Russia has its numerous and influential agents in Poland, which torpedo many positive Polish initiatives. This Russian agency should work to bring the interests of Poland and Russia closer together. Russia attacked Poland three times because of a lack of food resulting mainly from adverse climate change:

during the partitions in 1772-1795,

in 1920

in 1939.

As writes Nicholas.V. Riasanovsky, Mark D. Steinberg in the book History of Russia, Krakow 2009, Publisher of the Jagiellonian University, in the chapter Crisis in Part VI entitled Soviet Russia quote:

“The drought that took place in 1920 and 1921, as well as the terrible famine (1921) added the last macabre chapter of the catastrophe. After the” bloodless “October Revolution, at first, there were years of epidemic, famine, fighting, and executions combined with general economic and social collapse, which took nearly 20 million victims. “

This quote is a direct proof that the climate crisis of lack of rainfall caused a decision to attack the Polish lands, which in those years experienced a huge harvest. In view of the huge fall in the value of the ruble and the destruction of the economy, food imports from Poland were impossible at the time because of the lack of adequate capital in Russia. The future world and climate situation may cause Russia’s actions towards the next aggression to the west, including Poland. Another partition of Poland is possible. A Germany-Russia agreement is likely. Will we prevent this situation? The Russian attack is approaching together with the coming minimum solar magnetic activity.

Nowadays, global food prices have been decreasing since 1920, and processes of depopulation and concentration of industrial and agricultural property are underway in Poland, which causes a growing economic and political crisis in Poland. Actions are needed to prevent population decline and concentration of ownership in industry and agriculture because these activities will increase Polish agro-industrial production and exports and with them the strength and importance of Poland. I described these activities in my book Man and climate and articles on Eioba.pl available on the Internet. I invite you to read them.

Warsaw, January 15-16, 2016 at 19:35  

State of the Justice

State of the Justice

In Guy Sorman’s book “Made in the USA” on page 70, the author gives the basics of the American statehood such as:
Capitalism is effective
Christian morality is being just,
The individual knows better than the state what is good for her.
This complex of features created by Myron Magnet and called “compassionate conservatism” George W. Bush have done in the election year 2000 his slogan of the election. This won’t be surprising but all these statements were not true.
There have been periods of capitalism in US history development and periods of domination of state interventionism. In addition, capitalism not regulated by human thought leads to concentrate capital and, ultimately, to the economic crisis and revolution.
Christian morality is not fair at all because it does not apply to all the teachings of Jesus Christ, who recommended the love of enemies, sharing bread and wine, an inheritance of property by local society as principles of social justice.
Now imagine the Christian morality of the US and Russia, armed to the teeth and ready for war at any time in defense of their interests and ambitions. The US and Russia selling to the poor of the own surplus grain at maximum prices, where almost all the country’s wealth is accumulated and inherited by a handful of billionaires. That’s what we have “Christian morality” in these countries – contenders for primacy in the world.
Does the individual know better than the state what is good for them?
A state such as the Polish People’s Republic fulfilled the needs of citizens according to the adopted ideology, i.e. met mass needs. With this principle, the limited resources in dispositions of the Polish People’s Republic allowed for a very slow satisfaction of the growing range of needs society, which was not well received by Poles. The elite of the PRL, obligated by the ideology, they did a lot for the masses of Poles, but the global economic crisis and global increase of food prices ended of the revolution of the masses revolted by the crisis.
Are masses of citizens unaware of the global crisis had known what they were doing by spontaneously participating in a revolution destroying THEIR COUNTRY?
Similarly, the Nobel Prize winners of economics in 2000 stated that inside capitalism is a hidden deep imbalance in access to information to the detriment of the masses. Hidden information as is known commonly, it is the basis of business operations. In society then the capitalist elite has an advantage in business information, which is in effect responsible for concentrating capital in the hands of a narrow group of rich people.
In my model of the state, Christ’s social principles will continue to apply supported by the existence of a supportive scientific, business and distribution center for citizens in business operations. If this model of the state will succeed, it will be realized the fulfillment of human dreams.
The introduction to this model of the state of justice will be information provided to the elites, and through them to the masses, which I included in the book entitled “History natural and climate change “, available on my account on the Research Gate research portal. It will be better for the contemporary world elites if they allow knowing my book to social masses before the outbreak of the global revolution.
Warsaw, April 3-4, 2016, 19:44 – 2:29 Bogdan Góralski

Human rights and climate change

Human rights and climate change.

Bogdan Góralski Library of the Historical Institute of the Warsaw University

Gender issues of human frustrate public opinion around the globe. In my Polish book entitled “Historia naturalna i zmiany klimatu” I present the impact of climate change on our civilization. This article discusses the issue of changes in women’s and men’s rights during climate change.
As described by Krzysztof Szymborski in a book entitled Political Animal (Szymborski K. 2011) apes retain a clear division of cultural distinctiveness of each gender. Females occupy the offspring and the male’s fight over territory and females.
Differences in social functions result from the struggle for existence and about, not conscious, preservation of the species. Evolution has changed morphologically monkeys into humans, but the social characteristics of sex in human herds generally remain unchanged. In the evolution of human climate change played a great role. Climate change caused movements of vegetation zones and the resulting migration of hominids and later groups of people (See the chapter entitled Notes on the evolution of mammals and climate changes).
As a result of climate change, the civilization of human groups developed and human culture was created. This culture differed in human groups shaped in a warm climate and in a cold climate.
Warm climate causes greater individualization of humans – a small group it was easier to survive in a more friendly warm environment limited surface. In these smaller teams of humans, where hunting was cultivated as an addition to the picking of fruits etc., count every human, also women skillful in picking fruits, etc. – what created a culture of gender equality.
The cold climate created human herds capable of hunting large animals which provided most of the food. In these groups of humans, survival was depended on successful hunting conducted by a group of men the culture of male superiority was formed.
Both of these cultures, shaped by hundreds of thousands of years, have survived to this day, along with the genes of their representatives and differentiate contemporary global human society in terms of the rights of women and men.
Climate change and the economic and social development of human civilization.
In areas, foreground Pleistocene glaciers formed fertile soils, which began to be used for agriculture during the Holocene climate warming, which resulted in a new type of human culture – the culture of the groups of farmers in the fixed farms. Agricultural populations grew in number because of the cultivation of new areas of land still it was necessary new hands to work. Women and children were needed by human societies. The study German sociologist ((Richard Grunberger 1987) Social History of the Third Reich, PIW)), indicates that in the small farms most of the works perform the women. In connection with the greater responsibility of women for the family’s survival, women’s rights in developing agricultural populations are respected. Women have equal rights.
This culture developed initially on the South of Eurasian continent when northern the glaciers retreated and the climate was warming itself eg. In Anatolia, Mesopotamia, southern China. In the south of Eurasia developed a number of communities of people engaged in agriculture. In the Holocene climate changes were occurring and during historical times have caused a shift of precipitation zones and zones of the lush vegetation to the north and with them were moved the locations of centers of human civilization. The former centers of agricultural crops eg. In Egypt and Mesopotamia, and southern China have lost importance as a result of a more dry climate and monsoon zone shifted more to the north.
During the last Pleistocene glaciation stadial China’s air temperature decreased by an average of 6-8 degrees Celsius, and the summer monsoon zone coverage shifted 700 km southeast ((Burroughs, William J. (2005), Climate change in Prehistory: The End of the Reign of Chaos, New York: Cambridge University Press)). During the Holocene warming, monsoon shifted to the north. Peoples farming in the south then began work on the creation of irrigation systems fields on the lands on which lacked rainfall.
As a result of more dry climate old agricultural centers declined and the population settled in these lands began subjected to overcrowding. Many farmer’s populations subjected to the pressure of the deterioration of the climate began to slowly adapt to the changed conditions. Irrigation was no longer sufficient to ensure an abundance of food so began to change the culture of society which was affected by lack of food. First of all, the social mechanisms mapped by the customs started to limit the population. Under these conditions, women’s importance decreased because women had been blamed responsible for causing the problem of population growth.
There were restricted the rights of women and the sexual behavior was subject to strict rules. To this day, the most overcrowded populations admit the slightest rights to women, eg. In India, China, where even the murder of newborn girls is commonplace. Islamic countries situated mainly in the South, where the Prophet Muhammad granted the great rights to women differentiate itself into more or less pro feminine depending on the biological standard of living of their populations. The worse the living standards the rights of women less.
In northern countries, to which centers of civilization were moved, vegetation zones are the greatest as a result of a favorable climate today, agriculture flourishes and are the basis of the economic pyramid developed by the northern population. There are conditions for the development of the industry producing for agriculture and create new jobs. The need for people to work and there is beginning to employ women. Women begin to educate. Rising education of women in richer societies conducive to exploring mitigation techniques of procreation. Northern populations reduce birth rates and continue to develop economically due to export products to the less developed areas of the world. Arrives jobs and growing demand for workers. Therefore workers’ rights are respected, including the rights of women gaining employment in the industry.
An example of communities with large rights granted to women in Polish society. Our country has always suffered from a lack of people to work and in the Middle Ages populations of German flooded our country by waves of migrants, which resulted in the colonization of Poland on German law. This was due to favorable climatic environmental conditions to the west of Europe, promote great procreation and proliferation of the German population and its migration toward the sparsely populated eastern lands. The size of the population of Poland did not develop dynamically, which was due to worse than in Western Europe climatic conditions, therefore, it was still missing in Poland’s hands to work, which caused the phenomenon of serfdom and conducive to respect women and their rights.
In addition, during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in Poland, there was a masculinization of society. Decrease of Polish exports of grain improved the feeding of Polish society so that gave rise inborn to many more boys than girls. This caused the lack of women in the Polish population and increased respect for them during the formation of the modern Polish culture. Women commonly died in the postpartum period, and therefore Polish men attempted to secure women customary rights and privileges to encourage them to give birth. Women in too small Polish population were protected by such customary law of succession and surrounded by male care.
Since Polish society was agricultural and farming conditions resulting from an unfavorable climate were bad Polish women did most duties in conducting usually small farms. Increased responsibility of women for the survival of the family gave them power over families. The rights of Polish women grew with their responsibility for the survival of their families and the women’s rights in Europe.
On the social mechanisms in Polish society had an impact in contacts with a large community of Polish Jews, among which women were favored by Judaism laws. Women’s rights are greatest in populations at risk of extinction. Jews lived in a hostile Christian environment and they were constantly threatened with extinction so that Jewish families were granted the right of unpunished murder of a man who neglected to maintain the Jewish family. Jewish women still govern their families, and the rights conferred on them likely originated in a time when the Jewish population was threatened by the widespread persecution and pogroms. Excessive rights granted to women brought growth homosexuality among men, because homosexual relationships satisfy sexual desire, and there is no danger for men’s relationships with women that cause the development of dangerous families’ rights.
The above-described differences in respecting the rights of women in different areas of climatic conditions allow the supposition that the favorable climate and developing agriculture well affect the human economy and gender equality. Therefore, it is reasonable to assume that equalize the rights and responsibilities of women and men in Poland, it will be possible in the conditions of developing agriculture and the economy. Polish agriculture can develop only by restoring the feudal system conducive to the growth of the population.
The Polish industry and agriculture can develop only by the introduction of protecting men the voluntary principle of inheritance by the society of acquired property. This will introduce the equality of all citizens and develop our civilization.
Polish populations can be enlarged by the migration of peasants families from overpopulated countries of the South. My essay is an appeal to Polish women: “If you want to improve your life and life of your family, look after women from overcrowded countries”..” Woman, be more forgiving of Polish men”. This will improve your live being.
Warsaw, 27-30 November 2014
Bogdan Góralski

The evolution of mammals against climate change.

The evolution of mammals against climate change.

Bogdan Góralski

Library of The Historical Institute of the University of Warsaw

My arguments are based on many years of study and Wojciech Mikołuszko article entitled Family of Man, which is stated in National Geographic Poland 4 (175), in April 2014, as well as using the article entitled Anthropogenesis in Wikipedia.

The development of the hominid evolutionary Hominidae

During the evolution of the environment of our planet continued evolution of biological life. The cluster of mammals appeared in the evolutionary chain of about 200 million years ago, in the Jurassic period, which was characterized by a globally warm climate. From the Cretaceous, about 165 million years ago, the climate began to chill globally. This continues to the present day, then grows gradually. Around 1.8 million years ago in the northern hemisphere appeared glaciers.

Periods of rising ice sheets usually lasting about 100 thousands of years and were parted warm periods lasting about 10 thousand years when temperatures on Earth were similar to those present. In periods of glaciation occurred shorter cold episodes -stadials and phase movement of the glacier, as well as interstadials and interphase periods of warming, which says Quaternary geology. Fluctuations in the Earth’s climate can be divided into even shorter sections.

The cluster of mammals evolved successfully increasing their numbers from the Jurassic period, among other things thanks to the constant body temperature, which allowed settle and control almost all of the Earth’s environment. Climate change on Earth is characterized mainly by the temperature of air and surface seawater and the amount of precipitation.

Earth’s climate changes globally and regionally with the movements of the earth’s coating (see Góralski 2019). Along with the movements of the earth’s coating (which changes its position relative to the ecliptic plane), climate zones that are motionless relative to the ecliptic plane move above the earth’s surface. The greater the movement of the earth’s coating at a given time, the lower were the temperatures of ocean waters. The regional shift of precipitation zones on the Earth causing movement of vegetation zones towards the equator (when the climate cools down) or towards the Arctic or Antarctic zones during global warming. The movement of plant zones, that also changing its location in direction east-west, had followed by the movement of the animals that feed mainly on plants.

Walking warm-blooded mammals and their simultaneous evolution resulted from the early Oligocene 35-31 million years ago, the emergence of primates apes Hominoidea, which describes the development of pt. Antropogeneza article in Wikipedia. The evolutionary mechanism by which appeared in the evolutionary line of hominids Hominidae -hominids, was probably based on the constant migration to the rhythm of climate change, the groups of hominids around the globe. I describe below.

The answer to the question of how to change the climate (and humanoids with it) will bring stratigraphy of Cretaceous, Tertiary, Quaternary showing the evolution of the environment of our planet, and the result of the consequences of successive waves of warming and cooling climate, which we read, when in Africa emerged conditions (violent warming and drying climate) forcing the biosphere wandering north-south direction.

Walking north and returns south population of hominids (warming and drying climate in Africa results in a reduction in food intake and causes stress, forcing the trek for food) looking for food caused genetic changes (standing upright in a well-drained grassy steppe provides greater visibility and easier survival) in skeleton and brain, because the greater the number of visual stimuli and a new environment necessitated the need to process larger amounts of information. The adaptation was the development of the brain that processes the information.

Cool climate resulted in higher latitudes worse living conditions which encouraged to journey south. In turn, found a younger and younger hominid remains marked by a gradual increase in the size of the braincase. Hominid populations remain in place mutated genetically very slow and probably dying, and those traveling mutate very quickly which resulted at the end of the formation of a separate genetic line of hominids.

Walking north-south direction also favored the production of the cultural envelope (to facilitate survival) – language to facilitate communication of new information on the environment and ethics cementing the group which allowed the survival of the subject in a new environment interglacial and glacial Eurasian continent and Africa.

When and how hominids straightened up and stood on two legs?

The upright position is more ergonomic during long hikes on well-watered grassy steppe zones and provides better visibility in high grass steppes and tundra, and there was no shortage of such wandering of humid climatic zones of Eurasia and Africa. It facilitates visual communication wandering groups, searches or hunt for food and defense against predators. Hiking on the north-south (in periods of warming or cooling climate) groups of hominids favored adopting an upright position and resulted in genetic mutations to facilitate adaptation to the new living environment with high prairie grasses – consolidation of genetically upright posture.

Why in the evolutionary line of hominids expanded brain?

The organ of vision provides us with a vast amount of information about the surrounding environment. When wandering on the north-south group of hominids encounters a new environment, there is new visual information. Nowadays people say that travel broadens. In this new environment, often survive those individuals who are better able to process and use information, have better-developed brains. Mutations with larger brains survive and have offspring that provide rewarding these features in the population and the development of the capacity of the skull in subsequent generations of hominids.

The wandering group communication is needed for defense against predators and foraging. The more efficient the brain provides more frequently the survival of the subject. The size of the brain and intellect features that facilitate survival in the group, promote genetic mutations developing brains of hominids. Develops cultural sheath, and in the technology of survival wandering group, which favors the evolution of individuals endowed with better-developed brains that can actively use this sheath to facilitate survival.

What were the origins of the language of hominids?

The solution to this puzzle includes a previous explanation. Changing environment (in traveling on a north-south in search of food group of hominids) forces to facilitate the survival behavior of a group protecting the individual. New environmental stimuli imply the development of communication facilitates the exchange of information about the new environment in which you live. There are new situations and new concepts that you need to express to allow the survival of the group and the individual. Mutations genotype better communicate frequently behave life and produce offspring, which favors the development of evolutionary characteristics of the brain (to facilitate communication and language development within a traveling group of hominids).

What enforced migration of the population hominids and humans?

The cooling gradually from the Cretaceous Earth’s climate fluctuated. Climate oscillations and their amplitude gradually increased to simulate the changes in the vegetation of our planet. Another warming brought its drying and the deterioration of the living environment in the vicinity of the equator and tropics, and improve the conditions of biological life (warmer and more rain) at higher latitudes. Subsequent warming, cool climate, characterized by an increase in rainfall in the regions between the tropics, caused the appearance of better conditions for biological life in the regions closer to the equator.

Regional climate change forced changes warmth of the oceans caused climate change is also in the East-West direction. All this resulted in cyclical changes in the distribution of vegetation zones on the globe and followed the movements of these zones was moving animals have fed them. Moved at times, especially during the Quaternary, a group of hominids that are subject to evolution during subsequent migrations after changing the rhythm of climate change the globe.

What caused the dominance of homo sapiens over the Neanderthals?

In my opinion populations of Homo sapiens, were more numerous than the populations of Neanderthals and their properties predominate in the human population. However, as a result of mixing the two evolutionary lines occurred fixation and storage characteristics of Neanderthals in the modern human population. This is evident in the varieties of the culture of our civilization differentiated on the male culture of Neanderthals and homo sapiens female culture.

Warsaw, 16-21 November 2014.