Library of the Faculty of History at the University of Warsaw
The history of the development and fall of successive empires has intrigued researchers for a long time, and this work makes an essential contribution to solving this puzzle. The logical concept of regional climate change related to the displacement of the Earth coating allows for explaining the causes of the development and defeat of each empire closed by the borders. The empire has been developing during favorable environmental changes in the region, which was the cradle of the kingdom. It grew during conquests, dependent on the natural strength of the empire’s elite and the conquered nations. Usually, great human migrations related to regional climate change marked the end of a given empire. To avoid the collapse of our human civilization in the coming global climate crisis and a possible devastating global war, we must open all borders and allow free movement of people.
It will focus politicians’ attention on the organization of economic life inside countries with the masses of migrants and reduce the pressure on foreign expansion. These changes should be preceded by a global agreement defining goals and rules for the worldwide migration of people and goods. In the course of my life, I developed the principles of a new international economic and political order and presented them in the works entitled:
The Third Way between capitalism and communism,
More science, ethics, culture for the modern and future world.
I hope that reading these works published in free access in Google Books will allow you to understand the logic of our history, which will result in the further global evolutionary development of our civilization.
2. Mechanism of growth and fall of empires
The terrestrial globe is divided into two hemispheres: northern and southern. The northern hemisphere is made up of more of the thick continental plates and is heavier than the southern hemisphere, mostly made up of thin ocean plates. The Earth globe is affected by the cosmic gravity and more strongly pulls the northern hemisphere with a variable force causing it to move to the ecliptic plane. It is possible due to the liquid intermediate layer between the rigid coating and the solid Earth core. The Earth coating slides over the liquid middle layer under the influence of the attraction of the alternating forces of gravity.
The Earth climatic zones are immobile to the plane of the ecliptic because they depend on the balance of solar radiation falling on the surface at various angles. As a result, the movement of the earth coating in relation to climatic zones causes regional climate changes in different parts of the globe. The movement of the Earth coating causes varying stresses in the crust as it approaches the equator and then moves away from it. These variable stresses cause earthquakes, the distribution of which over time was investigated in the Mediterranean Basin and Poland during the 750 BC-AD 2000 period.
An almost sinusoidal distribution of earthquakes with maxima and minima every 400 years was found. That is, every 400 years or so, the area adjacent to the Mediterranean Sea approaches the equator and then moves away from it, with different effects in different parts of the globe. The movement of the earth coating under stationary climatic zones causes changes in precipitation zones and drought zones on the earth area, which brings specific social effects and the occurrence of the cosmic-social cycle illustrated in the figure below.
Great religious leaders appear in times of socio-economic crisis caused by droughts resulting from the movement of the earth shell towards the equator.
In the ages of Christ and Muhammad, Palestine and the Arabian Peninsula probably entered, after a period of increased rains favoring population growth, in a year-round drought zone between the parallels of 20-30 degrees of latitude. This was due to the movement of the Earth coating towards the equator (confirmed in the graph above by the maximum of the earthquakes).
It is worth mentioning here the credible research showing that the Iranian area has shifted in the last 5,000 years from the climatic rainfall zone in summer to the rainfall zone in winter. It corresponds to the linear movement of the Earth’s shell towards the equator in the Iran region by about 25 degrees latitude, i.e., from the rainfall zone in summer between the 5-20 parallel to the winter rainfall zone between the 30-50 parallel. The area of Iran is now between 30-40 parallel, which means a shift to the equator over the last 5000 years by about 25 degrees latitude or about 3000 km. The Earth’s coating in the Iranian region has shifted southward by about 3,000 km in the last 5,000 years, but this movement is likely to have had different phases in the north-south and east-west directions. The changing trends of the movement of the Iranian area result from the study of the apparent position of the north magnetic pole, which continually changes its apparent location on the Earth’s surface. The variable place of the magnetic north pole results from the continuous movement of the Earth’s shell relative to the ecliptic plane.
During the rising of the Arab Empire, the Western Roman Empire fell, devastated by the invasion of the Germans tribes, who were driven out of northern Europe by the cold and the Mongol invasion. A similar phenomenon of earthquake growth took place gradually in the period of AD 1250-1800 in the territory of Poland, which means that the area of Anatolia was also approaching the equator at that time. It probably meant Anatolia’s and Mediterranean area transition into a climatic zone drought all-year-round. It had specific economic and social consequences for the Ottoman Empire, such as the internal crisis related to the lack of food, the disintegration of the empire, and the appearance of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, the Turkish social reformer at the end of the crisis. The crisis of the Ottoman Empire was caused by a drought (which was found in numerous works on the climate of Anatolia) and was interfaced with the entry of the Russian area into the year-round rainfall zone between the parallels 50-60, which caused the Russian imperial expansion and its development also towards the west, which resulted in the partitions of the Republic of Poland Both Nations.
Thus, we see that the influence of the Cosmos on the terrestrial natural environment causes specific psychological and social effects that end the duration of successive empires and the formation of new ones. With this knowledge, we should notice that the area of EuroAsia is again approaching the equator (which causes the effects called “global warming”) because of the number of earthquakes in the Mediterranean region observed by seismological observatories around the globe is increasing. Therefore, we should prepare for the change in the distribution of biological forces on our planet related to the displacement of climate zones.
My theory of earth climate change and an explanation of the above-described phenomena can be found in my book entitled “The new look at the Earth’s climate mechanism and the Cosmo-geophysical system of the Earth” and the book “Historia naturalna i zmiany klimatu” published freely on Google Books and Academia.edu.
Below is an excerpt from my work entitled More science, ethics, culture for the modern and future world, published in open access on Google Books and Academia.edu.
3. Climate change and people’s migrations
Climate change has triggered migrations of peoples whose chronology is a record of Earth’s climate cycles. Here is a history of the crises that ended in movements:
• -Approx. 12th century BC marked the migration of people, which ended the reign of Mycenaean civilization and began the so-called dark ages. As a result, the Etruscans appeared in Italy, Egypt and Palestine were attacked by the so-called peoples of the sea.
• -In the VIII, VII century BC, during the drought in the Asian steppes, the Scythians occupied eastern Europe. Simultaneously, the Great Greek colonization marked out, which expelled the Greek population to emigrate.
• -Approx. 4th century BC the journey of the Celts from northwestern Europe towards the Adriatic Sea, the Black Sea began, which indicates a growing cooling.
• -At the beginning of our era in Palestine has marked itself the significant socio-economic crisis that provoked the civil war in Galilee, Judea (which was called the War of Varus), and the uprising in 66 and 132 AD. It testifies to a crisis (rapid drying of the climate) that caused the exodus of Jews from Palestine to all world.
• The next migration of peoples began in the 4th century CE Huns invasion of Europe. Germanic peoples migrated south to the lands of the Roman Empire, leading to its downfall.
• In the VIII-IX centuries, the Viking expansion continued towards the south of Europe, which may indicate problems with feeding the population of Northern Europe and the climate crisis.
• In the 12th century, Mongols arrived in Europe because of the drought in the Asian steppes.
In the fourteenth century, it got cold, and in Europe were epidemics, hunger, and peasant uprisings.
• The extinction of the Vikings in Greenland since 1400. The Little Ice Age lasted until the 19th century. The peak of chilling in Europe was in the 17th century. It resulted in the great migration Europeans to the continents of both the Americas and Asia continued at the time. The great State of Poles-the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth and the Ottoman Empire collapsed then.
3.1.Climate disaster in the years 2013-2100
By the geophysical and historical data (migrations of people are indicative of climate crises), we know that the climate cycle repeats every 400 years. We can, therefore, expect that another major crisis will occur in 2013-2100. We should prepare for it. It will be a climate disaster – a sharp change in the distribution of climate zones, which will drastically reduce global food production. It will bring revolutions, wars, and supra-regional population migrations. There is still time to protect yourself against this. It requires knowledge and ethics on a global scale. Otherwise, dark ages will come.
We must adapt to regional climate change and, like our ancestors, migrate to climate-friendly regions of the globe. To do this, we must open borders and modify state systems to accept migrants and establish a new ethical system uniting all beings.
Warsaw, 1 January 2020 Bogdan Góralski